Thursday, July 30, 2020

Fb live Lecture July 30

The Triple Fool 

I am two fools, I know,
      For loving, and for saying so
          In whining poetry;
But where's that wiseman, that would not be I,
          If she would not deny?
Then as th' earth's inward narrow crooked lanes
    Do purge sea water's fretful salt away,
I thought, if I could draw my pains
    Through rhyme's vexation, I should them allay.
Grief brought to numbers cannot be so fierce,
For he tames it, that fetters it in verse.

      But when I have done so,
      Some man, his art and voice to show,
          Doth set and sing my pain;
And, by delighting many, frees again
          Grief, which verse did restrain.
To love and grief tribute of verse belongs,
    But not of such as pleases when 'tis read.
Both are increased by such songs,
    For both their triumphs so are published,
And I, which was two fools, do so grow three;
Who are a little wise, the best fools be.

NOTES :

John Donne's poem "The Triple Fool" expresses the narrator's feelings that he is a fool for falling in love, for writing about that love in poetry and for making that poetry available to others to co-opt and refresh the pain that he feels. By exploring the elements of the poem, including the rhetorical devices used, the reader can gain greater insights into the theme and better understand the poem's meaning.

Figurative Language

Personification is the primary type of figurative language used in the poem. The grief the man feels over his heartbreak is personified to give it greater importance and to make it seem like a force with purpose. "Verse did restrain" his grief, as if it were an animal or another force in need of taming. Those who read the man's poems set free this grief to torment him again. Metaphor is used to compare the purging effects of the sea to the effects the narrator hopes his poetry will have on his pain. He wants his poetry to behave "as th' earth's inward narrow crooked lanes," which "purge sea water's fretful salt away."

Paradoxical Statements

Paradoxical statements are used throughout the poem to reinforce the irrationality inherent in love. The narrator says "who are a little wise, the best fools be," which is paradoxical because fools cannot be fools if they are wise. The narrator refers to himself when he says, "For he tames it, that fetters it in verse." He cannot fetter, or chain, himself if he has the freedom to do so -- another paradoxical statement. These statements show how desperate the narrator is and how irrational he has become after falling in love


The Dream

Dear love, for nothing less than thee
Would I have broke this happy dream;
            It was a theme
For reason, much too strong for fantasy,
Therefore thou wak'd'st me wisely; yet
My dream thou brok'st not, but continued'st it.
Thou art so true that thoughts of thee suffice
To make dreams truths, and fables histories;
Enter these arms, for since thou thought'st it best,
Not to dream all my dream, let's act the rest.

   As lightning, or a taper's light,
Thine eyes, and not thy noise wak'd me;
            Yet I thought thee
(For thou lovest truth) an angel, at first sight;
But when I saw thou sawest my heart,
And knew'st my thoughts, beyond an angel's art,
When thou knew'st what I dreamt, when thou knew'st when
Excess of joy would wake me, and cam'st then,
I must confess, it could not choose but be
Profane, to think thee any thing but thee.

   Coming and staying show'd thee, thee,
But rising makes me doubt, that now
            Thou art not thou.
That love is weak where fear's as strong as he;
'Tis not all spirit, pure and brave,
If mixture it of fear, shame, honour have;
Perchance as torches, which must ready be,
Men light and put out, so thou deal'st with me;
Thou cam'st to kindle, goest to come; then I
Will dream that hope again, but else would die.

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'No Man is an Island'

No man is an island entire of itself; every man 
is a piece of the continent, a part of the main; 
if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe 
is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as 
well as any manner of thy friends or of thine 
own were; any man's death diminishes me, 
because I am involved in mankind. 
And therefore never send to know for whom 
the bell tolls; it tolls for thee. 


Olde English Version
No man is an Iland, intire of itselfe; every man
is a peece of the Continent, a part of the maine;
if a Clod bee washed away by the Sea, Europe
is the lesse, as well as if a Promontorie were, as
well as if a Manor of thy friends or of thine
owne were; any mans death diminishes me,
because I am involved in Mankinde;
And therefore never send to know for whom
the bell tolls; It tolls for thee.

MEDITATION XVII
Devotions upon Emergent Occasions
John Donne 



Earl of Surrey  Henry Howard 
The soote season, that bud and bloom forth brings
With green hath clad the hill and eke the vale;
The nightingale with feathers new she sings;
And turtle to her make hath told her tale.
Summer is come, for every spray now springs;
The hart hath hung his old head on the pale;
The buck in brake his winter coat he flings;
The fishes flete with new repairèd scale;
The adder all her slough away she slings;
The swift swalllow pursueth the flies small;
The busy bee her honey now she mings;
Winter is worn that was the flowers' bale.
And thus I see among these pleasant things
Each care decays, and yet my sorrow springs.

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Trope (literature)


A literary trope is the use of figurative language, via word, phrase or an image, for artistic effect such as using a figure of speech. The word trope has also come to be used for describing commonly recurring literary and rhetorical devices,motifs or clichΓ©s in creative works.

Origins

The term trope derives from the Greek  (tropos), "turn, direction, way", derived from the verb τρέπΡιν (trepein), "to turn, to direct, to alter, to change".Tropes and their classification were an important field in classical rhetoric. The study of tropes has been taken up again in modern criticism, especially in deconstruction.Tropological criticism (not to be confused with tropological reading, a type of biblical exegesis) is the historical study of tropes, which aims to "define the dominant tropes of an epoch" and to "find those tropes in literary and non-literary texts", an interdisciplinary investigation of which Michel Foucault was an "important exemplar".

In medieval writing

Types and examples

Rhetoricians have analyzed a variety of "twists and turns" used in poetry and literature and have provided a list of labels for these poetic devices. These include:

Allegory – A sustained metaphor continued through whole sentences or even through a whole discourse. For example: "The ship of state has sailed through rougher storms than the tempest of these lobbyists.

"Antanaclasis – The stylistic trope of repeating a single word, but with a different meaning each time; antanaclasis is a common type of pun, and like other kinds of pun, it is often found in slogans.

Hyperbole - the use of exaggeration to create a strong impression.Irony – Creating a trope through implying the opposite of the standard meaning, such as describing a bad situation as "good times".
Litotes
Metaphor – An explanation of an object or idea through juxtaposition of disparate things with a similar characteristic, such as describing a courageous person as having a "heart of a lion".
Metonymy – A trope through proximity or correspondence. For example, referring to actions of the U.S. President as "actions of the White House".
Oxymoron
Synecdoche – Related to metonymy and metaphor, creates a play on words by referring to something with a related concept: for example, referring to the whole with the name of a part, such as "hired hands" for workers; a part with the name of the whole, such as "the law" for police officers; the general with the specific, such as "bread" for food; the specific with the general, such as "cat" for a lion; or an object with its substance, such as "bricks and mortar" for a building.
Catachresis – improper use of metaphor


Kenneth Burke has called metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony the "four master tropes" due to having the most common application in everyday occurrence.

These tropes can be used to represent common recurring themes throughout creative works, and in a modern setting relationships and character interactions. It can also be used to denote examples of common repeating figures of speech.

Whilst most of the various forms of phrasing described above are in common usage, most of the terms themselves are not, in particular antanaclasis, litotes, metonymy, synecdoche and catachresis.



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1 comment:

  1. It's really helpful note. Many of students get benefits out of these informative notes along with the valuable lecture. πŸ’

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