Monday, November 29, 2021

A Detailed Solved NET English Paper Dec 2012 by Dr Mukesh Kumar Pareek English Cosmos 9828402032

2012 December UGC NET


1. Identify the work below that does not belong to the literature of the eighteenth century:

(A) Advancement of Learning

(B) Gulliver’s Travels

(C) The Spectator

(D) An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot

Answer: (A)

 1.The Advancement of Learning (full title: Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human) is a 1605 book by Francis Bacon who was a Jacobean and Caroline writer.Published in the seventeenth century.

2. Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships is a 1726 prose satire  by the Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, satirising both human nature and the "travellers' tales" literary subgenre. It was written in the eighteenth century also called Neo-classical Age.

3. The Spectator was a daily publication founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England, lasting from 1711 to 1712. Each "paper", or "number", was approximately 2,500 words long, and the original run consisted of 555 numbers, beginning on 1 March 1711. These were collected into seven volumes. The paper was revived without the involvement of Steele in 1714, appearing thrice weekly for six months, .These also were published in the eighteenth century .

4. The Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot is a satire in poetic form written by Alexander Pope and addressed to his friend John Arbuthnot, a physician. It was first published in 1735 and composed in 1734, when Pope learned that Arbuthnot was dying. Pope described it as a memorial of their friendship. It has been called Pope's "most directly autobiographical work", in which he defends his practice in the genre of satire and attacks those who had been his opponents and rivals throughout his career.Published in the eighteenth century.


2. Which, among the following, is a place through which John Bunyan’s Christian does NOT pass?

(A) The Slough of Despond

(B) Mount Helicon

(C) The Valley of Humiliation

(D) Vanity Fair

Answer: (B)

 The Pilgrim's Progress from This World, to That Which Is to Come is a 1678 Christian allegory written by John Bunyan.He passes through

City of Destruction

Slough of Despond

Village of Morality

Wicket Gate

Interpreter's House

The Cross

Difficulty Hill

Palace Beautiful

Valley of Humiliation

Valley of the Shadow of Death

Vanity Fair

3. The period of Queen Victoria’s reign is

(A) 1830–1900

(B) 1837–1901

(C) 1830–1901

(D) 1837–1900

Answer: (B)

 Victoria was queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1837–1901) and empress of India (1876–1901). Her reign was one of the longest in British history, and the Victorian Age was named after her.

4. Which of the following statements about The Lyrical Ballads is NOT true?

(A) It carried only one ballad proper, which was Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.

(B) It also carried pastoral and other poems.

(C) It carried a “Preface” which Wordsworth added in 1800.

(D) It also printed from Gray’s Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.

Answer: (D)

Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature.

Most of the poems in the 1798 edition were written by Wordsworth, with Coleridge contributing only four poems to the collection (although these made about a third of the book in length), including one of his most famous works, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.

A second edition was published in 1800, in which Wordsworth included additional poems and a preface detailing the pair's avowed poetical principles. For another edition, published in 1802, Wordsworth added an appendix titled Poetic Diction in which he expanded the ideas set forth in the preface. A third edition was published in 1802, with substantial additions made to its "Preface," and a fourth edition was published in 1805.

5. One of the following texts was published earlier than 1955. Identify the text:

(A) William Golding, the Inheritors

(B) Philip Larkin, the Less Deceived

(C) William Empson, Collected Poems

(D) Samuel Becket, Waiting for Godot

Answer: (C)

 1.The Inheritors is a work of prehistoric fiction and the second novel, published by Faber and Faber in 1955, by the British author William Golding, best known for his first novel Lord of the Flies (1954). It concerns the extinction of one of the last remaining tribes of Neanderthals at the hands of the more sophisticated Homo sapiens.

2. The Less Deceived, first published in 1955, was Philip Larkin's first mature collection of poetry.The title is taken from Hamlet.

3. Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, widely influential for his practice of closely reading literary works, a practice fundamental to New Criticism. His best-known work is his first, Seven Types of Ambiguity, published in 1930., Collected Poems (1956

4. Waiting for Godot  is a play by Samuel Beckett in which two characters, Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo), engage in a variety of discussions and encounters while awaiting the titular Godot, who never arrives. Waiting for Godot is Beckett's translation of his own original French-language play, En attendant Godot, and is subtitled (in English only) "a tragicomedy in two acts". The original French text was composed between 9 October 1948 and 29 January 1949. The premiere, directed by Roger Blin, was on 5 January 1953 at the Théâtre de Babylone [fr], Paris. The English-language version premiered in London in 1955.

6. Who among the poets in England during the 1930s had left–leaning tendencies?

(A) T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Richard Aldington

(B) Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon, Rupert Brooke

(C) W. H. Auden, Louis MacNeice, Cecil Day Lewis

(D) J. Fleckner, W. H. Davies, Edward Marsh

Answer: (C)

 The Auden Group or the Auden Generation also called Left Wing Poets is a group of British and Irish writers active in the 1930s that included W. H. AudenLouis MacNeiceCecil Day-LewisStephen SpenderChristopher Isherwood, and sometimes Edward Upward and Rex Warner. They were sometimes called simply the Thirties poets.

7. Match the following:

1. The Sage of Concord          5. Emily Dickinson

2. The Nun of Amherst           6. R.W. Emerson

3. Mark Twain                         7. T.S. Eliot

4. Old Possum                         8. Samuel L. Clemens

(A) 1–6; 2–5; 3–8; 4–7

(B) 1–5; 2–6; 3–7; 4–8

(C) 1–8; 2–7; 3–6; 4–5

(D) 1–7; 2–8; 3–5; 4–6

Answer: (A)

1.Emerson moved to Concord, MA and met Henry David Thoreau (Essayist and Naturalist), who became his disciple and friend. Among Emerson's later works include "Society and Solitude" (1870). By that time, Emerson became known as the "SAGE OF CONCORD" for his insightful and brilliant work.

2. Emily Dickinson was called  the myth’ or ‘the nun of Amherst’ Last 25 years of life dressed in white, living in self-imposed isolation.

3. The name Mark Twain is a pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens. Clemens was an American humorist, journalist, lecturer, and novelist who acquired international fame for his travel narratives, especially The Innocents Abroad (1869), Roughing It (1872), and Life on the Mississippi (1883), and for his adventure stories of boyhood, especially The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885). 

4. Eliot was nicknamed 'Old Possum' by his close comrade in modernist poetry, Ezra Pound (il miglior fabbro, 'the better craftsman', as he is hailed in the dedication to The Waste Land).


8. Name the theorist who divided poets into “strong” and “weak” and popularized the practice of misreading:

(A) Alan Bloom

(B) Harold Bloom

(C) Geoffrey Hartman

(D) Stanley Fish

Answer: (B)

 The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry is a 1973 book by Harold Bloom.In this book Bloom  attempted to trace the psychological process by which poets broke free from their precursors to achieve their own poetic vision. He drew a sharp distinction between "strong poets" who perform "strong misreadings" of their precursors, and "weak poets" who simply repeat the ideas of their precursors as though following a kind of doctrine. He described this process in terms of a sequence of "revisionary ratios", through which each strong poet passes in the course of their career. The book itself is divided into six major categories, called "six revisionary ratios" by Bloom.  They are clinamentesserakenosisdaemonizationaskesis, and apophrades.

9. In the Rape of the Lock Pope repeatedly compares Belinda to

(A) The sun

(B) The moon

(C) The North Star

(D) The rose

Answer: (A)

 Belinda represents the fashionable and aristocratic ladies of the time. She is a woman of superb beauty and charm. Early in the poem, she is compared to the sun (also at the beginning of the Canto II). The brightness of her eyes surpasses the brightness of the sun.


10. Which of the following awards is not given to Indian–English writers?

(A) The Booker Prize

(B) The Sahitya Akademi Award

(C) The Gyanpeeth

(D) Whitbread Prize

Answer: (C)

Jnanpith Award is the oldest and the highest Indian literary award presented annually by the Bharatiya Jnanpith to an author for their "outstanding contribution towards literature". Instituted in 1961, the award is bestowed only on Indian writers writing in Indian languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and English, with no posthumous conferral.

The Booker Prize, formerly known as the Booker Prize for Fiction (1969–2001) and the Man Booker Prize (2002–2019), is a literary prize awarded each year for the best novel written in English and published in the United Kingdom or Ireland. The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000, and was subsequently raised to £50,000 in 2002 under the sponsorship of the Man Group, making it one of the world's richest literary prizes.

The Sahitya Akademi Award is a literary honour in India, which the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, annually confers on writers of the most outstanding books of literary merit published in any of the 24 major Indian languages.

The Costa Book Awards are a set of annual literary awards recognising English-language books by writers based in Britain and Ireland. They were inaugurated for 1971 publications and known as the Whitbread Book Awards until 2006 when Costa Coffee, then a subsidiary of Whitbread, took over sponsorship. The companion Costa Short Story Award was established in 2012.

The awards are given both for high literary merit but also for works that are enjoyable reading and whose aim is to convey the enjoyment of reading to the widest possible audience. As such, they are a more populist literary prize than the Booker Prize.

11. Identify the correct statement below:

(A) Gorboduc is a comedy, while Ralph Roister Doister and Gammer Gurton’s Needle are tragedies.

(B) Gorboduc is a tragedy, while Ralph Roister Doister and Gammer Gurton’s Needle are comedies.

(C) All of them are problem plays.

(D) All of them are farces.

Answer: (B)

 The Tragedy of Gorboduc is the earliest English tragedy in blank verse. It was written by Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton. The writers took the story of the play from Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1138). The play premiered before Queen Elizabeth I on 18 January 1561. It was first printed in 1565. It was printed again in 1570 as The Tragedy of Ferrex and Porrex.

The play is about a good king named Gorboduc. He gives his kingdom away during his lifetime to his sons. The sons quarrel over the throne. Porrex, the younger son, kills his brother, Ferrex. Their mother, Queen Videna, avenges the death of her older son by murdering Porrex. Gorboduc and Videna are then killed by their horrified former subjects.

Nicholas Udall’s Ralph Roister Doister (1553) and the anonymous Gammer Gurton’s Needle (1559), are farcical comedies .

12. W.M. Thackeray’s Vanity Fair owes its title to

(A) Browning’s Fifine at the Fair

(B) Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice

(C) Goldsmith’s Vicar of Wakefield

(D) Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress

Answer: (D)

 The book's title comes from John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, a Dissenter allegory first published in 1678. In that work, "Vanity Fair" refers to a stop along the pilgrim's route: a never-ending fair held in a town called Vanity, which is meant to represent man's sinful attachment to worldly things. Thackeray does not mention Bunyan in the novel or in his surviving letters about it, where he describes himself dealing with "living without God in the world", but he did expect the reference to be understood by his audience, as shown in an 1851 Times article likely written by Thackeray himself.

13. The Puritans shut down all theaters in England in

(A) 1642

(B) 1640

(C) 1659

(D) 1660

Answer: (A)

 The major closing was the banning of theatre at the start of the English Civil War.  On September 6, 1642, by an act of Parliament, all theatres in England were closed.  This meant specifically that the great playhouses and theatrical companies of London, many of which had survived since the Elizabethan age, ceased operations for good.  The stated reason behind the ordinance was that attending theatre was “unseemly” during such turbulent times.  The real reason, of course, was that the playhouses had become meeting places for scheming Royalists.   Their Puritan rivals, who controlled Parliament, simply couldn’t have that.   So theatre was banned.  Within a few years most of the grand old structures, now abandoned, had decayed beyond use or were dismantled altogether–leaving no visible trace of the playhouses of Shakespeare’s day.  Theatre would remain illegal until the end of the Interregnum in 1660, when the Puritans lost power and the monarchy was restored.   Almost immediately, playhouses reopened and theatrical entertainments resumed.   Theatre returned full force with the Restoration leading to a revival of English drama and performance that paved the way for the great age of acting and wit during the 18th century.

Soon after the Restoration of Charless II, on August 21, 1660 theatres were reopened, when King Charles II granted two patents to Thomas Killigrew (1612-83) and Sir William Davenant (1606-68) to establish theaters


14. Who of the following was not a contemporary of Wordsworth and Coleridge?

(A) Robert Southey

(B) Sir Walter Scott

(C) William Hazlitt

(D) A. C. Swinburne

Answer: (D)

 Swinburne was a Victorian writer also called a Pre Raphelite poet.Rest of the writers are Romantic writers.Sir Walter Scott was a novelist as well as a poet .William Hazlitt was a prose writer famous as an essayist.Rober Southey was among the senior romantic writers including Wordsworth and Coleridge.

15. Which of the following statements about Waiting for Godot is NOT true?

1. It carries a subtitle: “a tragicomedy in two acts”.

2. It carries a subtitle: “a tragicomedy in two scenes”.

3. It carries a subtitle: “a tragicomedy in two parts”.

4. It does not carry a subtitle.

(A) 4

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 1

Answer: (D)

 Waiting for Godot  is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters, Vladimir and Estragon, wait for the arrival of someone named Godot who never arrives, and while waiting they engage in a variety of discussions and encounter three other characters. Waiting for Godot is Beckett’s translation of his own original French play, En attendant Godot, and is subtitled (in English only) “a tragicomedy in two acts”. The original French text was composed between 9 October 1948 and 29 January 1949. The premiere was on 5 January 1953 in the Théâtre de Babylone, Paris. The English language version was premiered in London in 1955. In a poll conducted by the British Royal National Theatre in 1990 it was voted the “most significant English language play of the 20th century”.

16. The Bloomsbury Group included British intellectuals, critics, writers and artists. Who among the following belonged to the Bloomsbury Group?

I. John Maynard Keynes, Lytton Strachey

II. E.M. Forster, Roger Fry, Clive Bell

III. Patrick Brunty, Paul Haworth

IV. Thomas Hardy, Henry James, Walter Pater

(A) I and II

(B) I

(C) II and III

(D) IV

Answer: (A)

 The Bloomsbury group included the novelist E.M. Forster, the biographer Lytton Strachey, the art critic Clive Bell, the painters Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant, the economist John Maynard Keynes, the Fabian writer Leonard Woolf, and the novelist and critic Virginia Woolf.Bloomsbury is a name of the area where  Woolf family lived.

17. Who, among the following is credited with the making of the first authoritative Dictionary of the English Language?

(A) Bishop Berkeley

(B) Samuel Johnson

(C) Edmund Burke

(D) Horace Walpole

Answer: (B)

 George Berkeley ( 1685 –1753) – known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne of the Anglican Church of Ireland) – was an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" .

Edmund Burke, (born January 12? [January 1, Old Style], 1729, Dublin, Ireland—died July 9, 1797, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England), British statesman, parliamentary orator, and political thinker prominent in public life from 1765 to about 1795 and important in the history of political theory. He championed conservatism in opposition to Jacobinism in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790).

Horatio Walpole 4th Earl of Orford (1717 –1797), better known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historianman of lettersantiquarian and Whig politician.He established the genre of Gothic fiction. The Castle of Otranto is a novel by Horace Walpole. First published in 1764, it is generally regarded as the first gothic novel. In the second edition, Walpole applied the word 'Gothic' to the novel in the subtitle – A Gothic Story. Set in a haunted castle, the novel merged medievalism and terror in a style that has endured ever since. The aesthetic of the book has shaped modern-day gothic books, films, art, music and the goth subculture..

Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel JohnsonA Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.

18. In Dryden’s Essay of Dramatic Poesy (1668), who opens the discussion on behalf of the ancients?

(A) Lisideius

(B) Crites

(C) Eugenius

(D) Neander

Answer: (B)

 Essay of Dramatic Poesie is a work by John Dryden, England's first Poet Laureate, in which Dryden attempts to justify drama as a legitimate form of "poetry" comparable to the epic, as well as defend English drama against that of the ancients and the French.The Essay was probably written during the plague year of 1666, and first published in 1668. In presenting his argument, Dryden takes up the subject that Philip Sidney had set forth in his Defence of Poesie in 1580.

The treatise is a dialogue between four speakers: Eugenius, Crites, Lisideius, and Neander. The four speakers are Sir Robert Howard [Crites], Lord Buckhurst or Charles Sackville [Eugenius], Sir Charles Sedley [Lisedeius], and Dryden himself (neander means "new man" and implies that Dryden, as a respected member of the gentry class, is entitled to join in this dialogue on an equal footing with the three older men who are his social superiors).

The four men debate a series of three topics:

 (1) the relative merit of classical drama (upheld by Crites) vs. modern drama (championed by Eugenius);

 (2) whether French drama, as Lisideius maintains, is better than English drama (supported by Neander, who famously calls Shakespeare "the greatest soul, ancient or modern");

and (3) whether plays in rhyme are an improvement upon blank verse drama—a proposition that Neander, despite having defended the Elizabethans, now advances against the skeptical Crites (who also switches from his original position and defends the blank verse tradition of Elizabethan drama). 

19. The term invective refers to

(A) The abusive writing or speech in which there is harsh denunciation of some person or thing.

(B) An insulting writing attack upon a real person, in verse or prose, usually involving caricature and ridicule.

(C) A written or spoken text in which an apparently straightforward statement or event is undermined in its context so as to give it a very different significance.

(D) The chanting or reciting of words deemed to have magical power.

Answer: (A)

 Invective is abusive, reproachful, or venomous language used to express blame or censure; or, a form of rude expression or discourse intended to offend or hurt; vituperation, or deeply seated ill will, vitriol. The Latin adjective invectivus means 'scolding.'

20. Which of the following novels depicts the plight of the Bangladeshi immigrants in East London?

(A) How far can you go

(B) The White Teeth

(C) An Equal Music

(D) Brick Lane

Answer: (D)

How Far Can You Go? (1980) is a novel by British writer and academic David Lodge. The novel is a bitterly funny satire on life for young English Catholics in the 1950s and 1960s

2. White Teeth is a 2000 novel by the British author Zadie Smith. It focuses on the later lives of two wartime friends—the Bangladeshi Samad Iqbal and the Englishman Archie Jones—and their families in London. The novel is centred around Britain's relationship with immigrants from the British Commonwealth.

3. An Equal Music (1999) is a novel by Vikram Seth. The plot concerns Michael, a professional violinist, who never forgot his love for Julia, a pianist he met as a student in Vienna. 

4.A novel by Monica Ali Brick Lane. Brick Lane is a street at the heart of London's Bangladeshi community. Ali's 2003 novel of the same name follows the life of Nazneen, a Bangladeshi woman who moves to London at the age of 18, to marry an older man, Chanu. They live in Tower Hamlets. At first her English consists only of "sorry" and "thank you;" the novel explores her life and adaptations in the community, as well as the character of Chanu, and their larger ethnic community. An additional narrative strand covers the experiences of Nazneen's sister, Hasina through the device of her correspondence.


21. The year 1939 proved to be a crucial year for two important writers in England. Identify the correct phrase below:

(A) For Yeats who died, for Auden who left England for the U. S.

(B) For Eliot who started publishing verse–drama, for Hardy whose Wessex Poems were published.

(C) For Evelyn Waugh and Graham Greene, each for publishing his first novels.

(D) For Eliot who won the Nobel Prize and Orwell who published his Animal Farm.

Answer: (A)

1. W. B. Yeats died with old  at the Hôtel Idéal Séjour, in Menton, France, on 28 January 1939, aged 73. ... He was buried after a discreet and private funeral .

2.In 1939, Auden moved to the U.S., and his work became less political as he turned to Christianity. During this time, he wrote such major works as Another Time (1940) and The Double Man (1941).

3. Eliot’s first attempt at a verse play went, unquestionably, poorly. Unable to finish, only two scenes were published in 1926 and 1927. In 1932, the scenes were published as Sweeney Agonistes: Fragments of an Aristophanic Melodrama, which is commonly performed as a one-act play.. Wessex Poems and Other Verses (often referred to simply as Wessex Poems) is a collection of fifty-one poems set against the bleak and forbidding Dorset landscape by English writer Thomas Hardy. It was first published in 1898 .

4. Waugh was ultimately displeased with the book, but his reputation was on its way to being cemented and was further established by his debut novel Decline and Fall (1928).. Greene was baptised on 26 February 1926 and they married on 15 October 1927 at St Mary's Church, Hampstead, North London. He published his first novel, The Man Within, in 1929; its favourable reception enabled him to work full-time as a novelist.

5. The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948 was awarded to Thomas Stearns Eliot "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.“. Animal Farm is a satirical allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945.


22. The Enlightenment was characterized by

(A) Accelerated industrial production and general well–being of the public.

(B) A belief in the universal authority of reason and emphasis on scientific experimentation.

(C) The Protestant work ethic and compliance with Christian values of life.

(D) An undue faith in predestination and neglect of free will.

Answer: (B)

 The four fundamental principles of Enlightenment.

(1) The law like order of the natural world.

 (2) The power of human reason.

 (3) The "natural rights" of individuals (including the right to self government)

 (4) The progressive improvement of society.

23. Which Shakespearean play contains the line: “...there is a special providence in the fall of a sparrow”?

(A) King Lear

(B) Hamlet

(C) Coriolanus

(D) Macbeth

Answer: (B)

  This quote from the final act of Hamlet .In the scene, Horatio begs Hamlet to make up an excuse not to duel with Laertes, if he has a bad feeling about it. Hamlet replies: "Not a whit, we defy augury. There’s a special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now, ’tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come. The readiness is all.”  

Augury is usually defined in the footnotes as simply “superstition” or “divination.” But there's more to it and it’s fascinating. Augury was the ancient Roman practice of divination through birds, and it’s where we get the words “auspicious," “inauspicious" and “inauguration.”
In this quote, Hamlet rejects the notion that the will of the gods or fate can be divined and avoided, and asserts that everything unfolds according to an immutable plan. If something is fated to happen, it will happen. If not now, then it will come later. If not later, then now. For the first time in the play, he finds a sense of acceptance and peace in the face of overwhelming circumstances. 

Even the smallest sacrifices (i.e. the fall of a sparrow) are part of a grander design that we cannot fathom with our limited human perception. Because you can’t see the bigger picture, you can’t outsmart it. The exploration of this idea lead me to the extraordinary natural phenomenon among birds known as a murmuration. Typically seen among starlings, a murmuration is a large flock of birds (tens or even hundreds of thousands) that group together and become an undulating, morphing whole. The constantly shifting shapes they make are mesmerizing and imply a kind of higher order intent, but the structures are completely emergent: no bird is leading, and no shape is intentional. Each individual bird is aware of the birds around it and simply responds to the constantly changing states. But from the ground, we can observe the emergence of a structure, chaotic as it may be. 

24. Match the following pairs of books and authors:

Books                                                                          Authors

I. Condition of the Working Class in England           i. John Ruskin

II. London Labour and the London Poor                   ii. Henry Mayhew

III. Past and Present                                                   iii. Thomas Carlyle

IV. Theunto This Last                                                 iv. Friedrich Engels


       I II III IV

(A) iv i ii iii

(B) iv ii iii i

(C) ii iv i ii

(D) iii ii iv iv

Answer: (B)

The Condition of the Working Class in England (German: Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England) is an 1845 book by the German philosopher Friedrich Engels, a study of the industrial working class in Victorian England. ... After their second meeting in 1844, Karl Marx read and was profoundly impressed by the book.

London Labour and the London Poor is a work of Victorian journalism by Henry Mayhew. In the 1840s, he observed, documented, and described the state of the poor.

Past and Present is a book by Thomas Carlyle. ... It was published in April 1843 in England and the following month in the United States.

Unto This Last is an essay and book on economy by John Ruskin, first published between August and December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine 

25. In which of the following texts do Aston, Davies and Mick appear as characters?

(A) Wyndham Lewis’s Enemy

(B) Harold Pinter’s Caretaker

(C) Katherine Mansfield’s “Life of Ma Parker”

(D) Graham Greene’s Brighton Rock

Answer: (B)

26. What is common to the following writers? Identify the correct description below:

William Congreve

George Etherege

William Wycherley

Thomas Otway

(A) All of these were Restoration playwrights

(B) All of them were critics of Orwell’s regime

(C) All of them edited Shakespeare’s plays

(D) All of them wrote tragedies in the same age

Answer: (A)

Restoration Comedy is the name given to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1700. After public stage performances had been banned for 18 years by the Puritan regime, the re-opening of the theaters in 1660 signaled a rebirth of English drama. What would emerge from this period would be one of the greatest epochs in the history of the English theater, though it would be completely unlike the Jacobean and Elizabethan dramas which had preceded it.

 William Congreve, 1670-1729, English dramatist who shaped the English comedy of manners through his brilliant comic dialogue, his satirical portrayal of the war of the sexes, and his ironic scrutiny of the affectations of his age. His major plays were The Old Bachelour (1693), The Double-Dealer (1693), Love for Love (1695), and The Way of the World (1700).

Sir George Etherege1635-1692 , English diplomat and creator of the Restoration-era comedy of manners.

Etherege’s first comedy, The Comical Revenge; orLove in a Tub, was an immediate success, it was novel in its exploitation of contemporary manners, especially in the intrigue of the stylish Sir Frederick Frollick.

She wou’d if she cou’d, Etherege’s second comedy (1668), failed because of poor acting.

His last and wittiest comedy, The Man of Mode; or, Sir Fopling Flutter, was produced with acclaim in 1676William Wycherley, 1641—1716, English dramatist who is best remembered for  The Country-Wife 1675, his first play was Love in a Wood; or, St. James’s Park,  another famous play is The Gentleman Dancing-Master,  The Plain-Dealer, presented in 1676, satirizes rapacious greed.

Thomas Otway 1652-1685,English dramatist and poet, one of the forerunners of sentimental drama through his convincing presentation of human emotions in an age of heroic but artificial tragedies. His masterpiece, Venice Preserved, was one of the greatest theatrical successes of his period.

27. In which Jane Austen novel do you find the characters Anne Elliott, Lady Russell, Louisa Musgrove and Captain Wentworth?

(A) Emma

(B) Mansfield Park

(C) Persuasion

(D) Northanger Abbey

Answer: (C)

 Anne Elliott, Lady Russell, Louisa Musgrove and Captain Wentworth are characters in the novel Persuasion.

Persuasion is the last novel fully completed by Jane Austen. It was published at the end of 1817, six months after her death. Twenty-seven-year old Anne Elliot is Austen's most adult heroine. Eight years before the story proper begins, she is happily betrothed to a naval officer, Frederick Wentworth, but she precipitously breaks off the engagement when persuaded by her friend Lady Russell that such a match is unworthy. The breakup produces in Anne a deep and long-lasting regret. When later Wentworth returns from sea a rich and successful captain, he finds Anne's family on the brink of financial ruin and his own sister a tenant in Kellynch Hall, the Elliot estate. All the tension of the novel revolves around one question: Will Anne and Wentworth be reunited in their love?

28. In which of his essays does Homi Bhabha discuss the ‘discovery’ of English in colonial India?

(A) “Signs taken for Wonders”

(B) “Mimicry”

(C) Nation and Narration

(D) “The Commitment to Theory”

Answer: (A)

 In "Signs Taken For Wonders," Homi K. Bhabha examines several moments in postcolonial literature that depict the "sudden, fortuitous discovery of the English book“. And yet Bhabha's central argument is that the English book -- a fetishized sign that glorifies the epistemological centrality and permanence of European dominance -- paradoxically is an emblem of "colonial ambivalence" that suggests the weakness of colonial discourse and its susceptability to "mimetic" subversion. As Bhabha argues in the passage below, the English book, instead of describing the fixity or irreducability of European rule, in fact betrays these foundations of authority and moreover empowers the colonized subject with a mode of resistance against imperial oppression:

The discovery of the English book establishes both a measure of mimesis and a mode of civil authority and order. If these scenes, as I have narrated them, suggest the triumph of the write of colonialist power, then it must be conceded that the wily letter of the law inscribes a much more ambivalent text of authority. for it is in between the edict of Englishness and the assault of the dark unruly spaces of the earth, through an act of repetition, that the colonial text emerges uncertainly...consequently, the colonial presence is always ambivalent, split between its appearance as original and authoritative and its articulation as repetition and difference.

Mimcry is a concept in Postcolonial Theory explained elsewhere in the book.

Nation and Narration is a book by Bhabha, in his preface, writes 'Nations, like narratives, lose their origins in the myths of time and only fully encounter their horizons in the mind's eye'.
From this seemingly impossibly metaphorical beginning, this volume confronts the realities of the concept of nationhood as it is lived and the profound ambivalence of language as it is written. From Gillian Beer's reading of Virginia Woolf, Rachel Bowlby's cultural history of Uncle Tom's Cabin and Francis Mulhern's study of Leaviste's 'English ethics'; to Doris Sommer's study of the 'magical realism' of Latin American fiction and Sneja Gunew's analysis of Australian writing, Nation and Narration is a celebration of the fact that English is no longer an English national consciousness, which is not nationalist, but is the only thing that will give us an international dimension.


The Commitment to Theory is an essay in Bhabha’s Postcolonial classic book Location of Culture. Bhabha is working within the context of deconstruction and post-colonial theory. He examines binary oppositions and how they formulate identity and culture. Think of the oppositions often connected with post-colonialism: West/East, Oppressor/Oppressed, White/Other. Bhabha argues in this essay that we should not let these binaries limit the way we think of identity, culture,

29. ______was the first Sonnet Sequence in English.

(A) Edmund Spenser’s Amoretti

(B) Philip Sidney’s Astrophel and Stella

(C) Samuel Daniel’s Delia

(D) Michael Drayton’s Idea’s Mirror

Answer: (B)

During the late 16th century and early 17th century a large number of sonnet sequences were written in English, the most notable of which include:

Sir Philip SidneyAstrophel and Stella (1591), 108 sonnets and 11 songs thought to be addressed to Lady Rich, written between 1580 and 1584.

Edmund SpenserAmoretti (1594), 88 sonnets and an epithalamion addressed to his wife, Elizabeth.

Samuel DanielDelia (1592), 50 sonnets.

Michael DraytonIdea's Mirror (1594), 64 sonnets to Phoebe; later reworked as Idea (1619), 73 sonnets.

Fulke GrevilleCaelica (1633), 109 sonnets.

Shakespeare Sonnets (1609), 154 sonnets to a variety of unnamed people, both male and female.

Lady Mary WrothPamphilia to Amphilanthus (1621), 48 sonnets, included in Urania.



30. Which is the correct sequence of the novels of V.S. Naipaul?

(A) The Mystic Masseur–Miguel Street–The Suffrage of Elvira – A House for Mr. Biswas.

(B) Miguel Street – The Mystic Masseur – A House for Mr.Biswas – The Suffrage of Elvira.

(C) The Suffrage of Elvira – Miguel Street – The Mystic Masseur – A House for Mr. Biswas.

(D) The Mystic Masseur – The Suffrage of Elvira, Miguel Street – A House for Mr. Biswas.

Answer: (D)

The Mystic Masseur is a comic novel by V. S. Naipaul. It is set in colonial Trinidad and was published in London in 1957. The novel is about a frustrated writer of Indian descent who rises from an impoverished background to become a successful politician on the back of his dubious talent as a 'mysticmasseur — a masseur who can cure illnesses.

The Suffrage of Elvira is a comic novel by V. S. Naipaul set in colonial Trinidad. It was written in 1957, and was published in London the following year. The novel describes the slapstick circumstances surrounding a local election in one of the districts of Trinidad. It also delves into the multiculturalism of Trinidad, showing the effects of the election on various ethnic groups, including MuslimsHindus, and Europeans.

Miguel Street is a collection of linked short stories by V. S. Naipaul set in wartime Trinidad and Tobago. The stories draw on the author's childhood memories of Port of Spain. The author lived with his family in the Woodbrook district of the city in the 1940s, and the street in question, Luis Street, has been taken to be the model of Miguel Street. Some of the inhabitants are members of the Hindu community to which Naipaul belonged.  published Miguel Street after Naipaul's first two novels, The Mystic Masseur and The Suffrage of Elvira, which appeared in 1957 and 1958 respectively.

A House for Mr Biswas is a 1961 novel by V. S. Naipaul, significant as Naipaul's first work to achieve acclaim worldwide. It is the story of Mohun Biswas, a Hindu Indo-Trinidadian who continually strives for success and mostly fails, who marries into the influential Tulsi family only to find himself dominated by it, and who finally sets the goal of owning his own house. It relies on some biographical elements from the experience of the author's father, and views a colonial world sharply with postcolonial perspectives.

31. “Kubla Khan” takes an epigraph from

(A) Samuel Purchas’ Purchas His Pilgrimage

(B) Hakluyt’s Voyages

(C) The Book Named the Governour

(D) Sir Thomas More’s Utopia

Answer: (A)

 Kubla Khan: or, A Vision in a Dream: A Fragment is a poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, completed in 1797 and published in 1816. According to Coleridge's preface to Kubla Khan, the poem was composed one night after he experienced an opium-influenced dream after reading a work describing Shangdu, the summer capital of the Yuan dynasty founded by the Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan. Upon waking, he set about writing lines of poetry that came to him from the dream until he was interrupted by "a person from Porlock". Coleridge was reading Purchas his Pilgrimes by Samuel Purchas, and fell asleep after reading about Kublai Khan.

Hakluyt’s Voyages is not a book.Actually Richard Hakluyt  1553 –1616) was an English writer known for promoting the English colonisation of North America through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America (1582) and The Principall Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation (1589–1600).

The Boke named the Governour, or The Book of the Governor, is a book by Thomas Elyot  published in 1531, dedicated to Henry VIII and is largely a treatise on how to properly train statesmen. The Book of the Governor is evidence of the impact that Renaissance humanism had on prose writing.



32. Which of the following author– theme is correctly matched?

(A) The Battle of the Books- Tribute to “The rude forefathers of the hamlet”.

(B) The Rape of the Lock- Quarrel between ancient and modern authors.

(C) Gray’s “Elegy”-Accumulation of wealth and the consequent loss of human lives and values.

(D) The Deserted Village- Quarrel between two families caused by Lord Petre.

Answer: (A)

"The Battle of the Books" is the name of a short satire written by Jonathan Swift and published as part of the prolegomena to his A Tale of a Tub in 1704. It depicts a literal battle between books in the King's Library (housed in St James's Palace at the time of the writing), as ideas and authors struggle for supremacy. Because of the satire, "The Battle of the Books" has become a term for the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. It is one of his earliest well-known works.

The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic narrative poem written by Alexander Pope. One of the most commonly cited examples of high burlesque, it was first published anonymously in Lintot's Miscellaneous Poems and Translations (May 1712) in two cantos (334 lines); a revised edition "Written by Mr. Pope" followed in March 1714 as a five-canto version (794 lines) accompanied by six engravings. Pope boasted that this sold more than three thousand copies in its first four days.The final form of the poem appeared in 1717 with the addition of Clarissa's speech on good humour. 

Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard is a poem by Thomas Gray, completed in 1750 and first published in 1751. the death of the poet Richard West in 1742. Originally titled Stanzas Wrote in a Country Church-Yard, the poem was completed when Gray was living near St Giles' parish church at Stoke Poges. The poem is an elegy in name but not in form; it employs a style similar to that of contemporary odes, but it embodies a meditation on death, and remembrance after death. The poem argues that the remembrance can be good and bad, and the narrator finds comfort in pondering the lives of the obscure rustics buried in the churchyard. The two versions of the poem, Stanzas and Elegy, approach death differently; the first contains a stoic response to death, but the final version contains an epitaph which serves to repress the narrator's fear of dying..In the fourth stanza appears this line on forefathers..

Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree’s shade,
Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap,
Each in his narrow cell forever laid,
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.

The Deserted Village is a poem by Oliver Goldsmith published in 1770. It is a work of social commentary, and condemns rural depopulation and the pursuit of excessive wealth.

The poem is written in heroic couplets, and describes the decline of a village and the emigration of many of its residents to America. In the poem, Goldsmith criticises rural depopulation, the moral corruption found in towns, consumerism, enclosure, landscape gardening, avarice, and the pursuit of wealth from international trade.

The poem opens with a description of a village named Auburn, written in the past tense.

Sweet Auburn! loveliest village of the plain;Where health and plenty cheered the labouring swain,Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid,And parting summer's lingering blooms delayed (lines 1–4).

33. Which among the following titles set a course for academic literary feminism?

(A) Nostromo

(B) From Ritual to Romance

(C) A Room of One’s Own

(D) A Dance to the Music of Time

Answer: (C)

 Nostromo by Joseph Conrad,

From Ritual to Romance  by James Frazer

,and A Dance to the Music of Time A Dance to the Music of Time is a 12-volume roman-fleuve by Anthony Powell, published between 1951 and 1975 to critical acclaim. The story is an often comic examination of movements and manners, power and passivity in English political, cultural and military life in the mid-20th century. The books were inspired by the painting of the same name by Nicolas Poussin.

  A Room of One’s Own is an extended essay by Virginia Woolf, published in 1929. The work is based on two lectures Woolf delivered in October 1928 at Newnham College and Girton College, women's constituent colleges at the University of Cambridge.

In her essay, Woolf uses metaphors to explore social injustices and comments on women's lack of free expression. Her metaphor of a fish explains her most essential point, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction".She writes of a woman whose thought had "let its line down into the stream". As the woman starts to think of an idea, a guard enforces a rule whereby women are not allowed to walk on the grass. Abiding by the rule, the woman loses her idea. Here, Woolf describes the influence of women's social expectations as mere domestic child bearers, ignorant and chaste.

34. In which play do we see a reworking of E.M.Forster’s A Passage to India as a camaeo?

(A) The Birthday Party

(B) A Resounding Tinkle

(C) Indian Ink

(D) Amadeus

Answer: (C)

cameo is a short description or piece of acting which expresses cleverly and neatly the nature of a situation, event, or person's character.

Indian Ink is a 1995 play by Tom Stoppard based on his 1991 radio play In the Native State.

 Flora Crewe, a young poet travelling India in 1930, has her portrait painted by a local artist. More than fifty years later, the artist's son visits Flora's sister in London while her would-be biographer is following a cold trail in India.

The Birthday Party is a comedy of menace by Harold Pinter.There is no reference of India in the play.

A Resounding Tinkle is a play by Norman Frederick "N. F." Simpson 1919 –2011  an English playwright closely associated with the Theatre of the Absurd. There is no reference of India in this play too.

Amadeus is a play by Peter Shaffer which gives a fictional account of the lives of composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri, first performed in 1979. It was inspired by Alexander Pushkin's short 1830 play Mozart and Salieri.There is no reference of India here too.

35. Shakespeare’s sonnets

(A) Do not carry a dedication.

(B) Are dedicated to James I of England.

(C) Are dedicated to Mary Arden.

(D) Are dedicated to an unknown “Mr. W.H.”

Answer: (D)

 The sonnets were dedicated to a W. H., whose identity remains a mystery, although William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke, is frequently suggested because Shakespeare's First Folio (1623) was also dedicated to him.

36. Which of the following poems uses terzarima?

(A) John Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale”

(B) P.B. Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind”

(C) William Wordsworth’s “The Solitary Reaper”

(D) Alfred Tennyson’s “Ulysses”

Answer: (B)

"Ode to a Nightingale" is a poem by John Keats written either in the garden of the Spaniards Inn, Hampstead, London. The stanza form of the poem is a combination of elements from Petrarchan sonnets and Shakespearean sonnets.

"The Solitary Reaper" was a lyric by English Romantic poet William Wordsworth, and one of his best-known works. “The Solitary Reaper” alternates between two meters: iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter. Most of the poem is in iambic tetrameter; while each stanza also contains a single line in iambic trimeter, the fourth line of each stanza. ... In common meter, iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter lines alternate.

"Ulysses" is a poem in blank verse which is also called iambic pentameter by the Victorian poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892), written in 1833 and published in 1842 . It is a dramatic monologue. Facing old age, mythical hero Ulysses describes his discontent and restlessness upon returning to his kingdom, Ithaca, after his far-ranging travels. Despite his reunion with his wife Penelope and his son Telemachus, Ulysses yearns to explore again.

 Only Ode to The West Wind is in Terza Rima.

Terza rima is a verse form composed of iambic tercets (three-line groupings). The rhyme scheme for this form of poetry is "aba bcb cdc, etc." The second line of each tercet sets the rhyme for the following tercet, and thus supplying the verse with a common thread, a way to link the stanzas.

37. When one says that “someone is no more” or that “someone has breathed his/ her last”, the speaker is resorting to

(A) Euphism

(B) Euphony

(C) Understatement

(D) Euphemism

Answer: (D)

Euphemism is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes to downplay. Euphemisms may be used to mask profanity or refer to taboo topics such as disability, sex, excretion, or death in a polite way.

Examples of Euphemisms

passed away instead of died.

passed over to the other side instead of died.

late instead of deceased.

dearly departed instead of deceased.

resting in peace for deceased.

no longer with us instead of deceased.

departed instead of died.

passed instead of died. 

38. Which of the following are “companion poems”?

(A) “Gypsy songs” and “Songs and Sonnets”

(B) “L’Allegro” and “II Penseroso”

(C) “The Good Morrow” and “The Sun Rising”

(D) “Full Fathom Five” and “Hark, Hark! The Lark”

Answer: (B)

A companion poem is  to be understood as paired with another poem, as reply, inversion, contradiction, or similar complementary relation. Most famous companion poems are by Romantic poet William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience.

“Gypsy Songs” is a two stanza poem   by Ben Jonson. “Songs and Sonnets” is a collection of songs and sonnets by the Metaphysical poet John Donne.There are no companion poems in this collection.

“The Good Morrow” and “ The Sun Rising” are love poems by John Donne.These are not companion poems.

Full Fathom Five is a poem in the collection The Colossus and Other Poems is a poetry collection by American poet Sylvia Plath. The title Full Fathom Five is also a song in Shakespeare’s Tempest sung by Ariel.

Hark,Hark the Lark is also a famous song in Shakespeare’s play Cymbline.

Both these songs cannot be called companion songs.

 L'Allegro is a pastoral poem by John Milton published in his 1645 PoemsL'Allegro (which means "the happy man" in Italian) has from its first appearance been paired with the contrasting pastoral poem, Il Penseroso ("the melancholy man"), which depicts a similar day spent in contemplation and thought.

39. What does the term episteme signify?

(A) Knowledge

(B) Archive

(C) Theology

(D) Scholarship

Answer: (A)

 Episteme means 'science' or 'knowledge' ,is a philosophical term that refers to a principled system of understanding; scientific knowledge. The term comes from the Ancient-Greek verb epístamai , meaning 'to know, to understand, to be acquainted with'. The term epistemology is derived from episteme.

French philosopher Michel Foucault, in his The Order of Things, uses the term épistémè in a specialized sense to mean the historical, non-temporal, a priori knowledge that grounds truth and discourses, thus representing the condition of their possibility within a particular epoch. In the book, Foucault describes épistémè:

In any given culture and at any given moment, there is always only one episteme that defines the conditions of possibility of all knowledge, whether expressed in a theory or silently invested in a practice.

An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located.

Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries.

scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education at a private elementary or secondary school, or a private or public post-secondary college, university, or other academic institution. Scholarships are awarded based upon various criteria, such as academic meritdiversity and inclusion, athletic skill, financial need, among others.

40. Which of the following is a better definition of an image in literary writing?

(A) A reflection

(B) A speaking picture

(C) A refraction

(D) A reflected picture

Answer: (B)

 Imagery is a literary device that allows writers to paint pictures in readers’ minds so they can more easily imagine a story’s situations, characters, emotions, and settings. Writers form strong images by being specific and concrete and using language to appeal to the readers’ five senses.

The word imagery originates from the Old French imagerie, meaning “figure” .Imagery first appeared in English in the middle of the 14th century.

Types of Imagery

literary imagery actually pertains to all five senses.

Visual imagery: This draws on the sense of sight to create pictures in readers’ heads; for example, “Her lips glistened red like ripe cherries.” Writers invoke color, size, etc., to help readers visualize scenes more vividly.

Auditory imagery: This evokes the sense of sound. It often involves the use of onomatopoeia, when words mimic the sound they represent: “The alarm clock beeped.” Sounds can help describe any auditory moment, such as dialogue in how one talks or a noisy setting like the roaring ocean. Depending on how the sound is expressed, it enhances mood, such as chaos, tension, or tranquility.

Olfactory imagery: Phrasing that makes use of the sense of smell is olfactory imagery; for example, “He smelled like the ocean, salty and fresh.” Because smell is heavily linked to memory, writers may use olfactory imagery to recreate a certain mood or feeling for readers.

Gustatory imagery: This involves the sense of taste; for example “The salty-sweet caramel melted on her tongue.” These images can be literal—for example, the taste of a food or beverage—or evoke an emotion (“metallic taste of fear”) or a situation’s mood (“honey-sweet kiss,” “sour bile in her mouth”).

Tactile imagery: This style of imagery appeals to readers’ sense of touch; for example, “The velvety moss covered the forest floor.” Tactile imagery often involves textures and physical traits (rough, smooth, itchy, sharp, dull), temperature (warm, freezing, humid), and movement (galloping, swimming, hugging).

Ode to Autumn is considered a best example of any poem that has abundance of all the five types of images.

41. Whom did Keats regard as the prime example of ‘negative capability’?

(A) John Milton

(B) William Wordsworth

(C) William Shakespeare

(D) P.B. Shelley

Answer: (C)

 Negative capability, a writer's ability, “which Shakespeare possessed so enormously,” to accept “uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason,” according to English poet John Keats, who first used the term in an 1817 letter. Why 'Negative'?

In the same way that chameleons are 'negative' or nuetral for colour, so Keatsian poets are negative for self and identity, they change their identity with each subject they inhabit.



42. Charles Dickens’s A Tale of Two Cities begins with the sentence

(A) It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.

(B) It was the brightest of times; it was the darkest of times.

(C) It was the richest of times; it was the poorest of times.

(D) It was the happiest of times; it was the saddest of times.

Answer: (A)

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way – in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.

43. The works of Gerard Manley Hopkins were published posthumously by

(A) Edwin Muir

(B) Edward Thomas

(C) Robert Bridges

(D) Coventry Patmore

Answer: (C)

 His work was not published until 30 years after his death when his friend Robert Bridges edited the volume Poems. 

Edwin Muir (1887 –  1959) was a Scottish poet, novelist and translator. 

Philip Edward Thomas (1878 – 9 1917) was a British poet, essayist, and novelist. He is considered a war poet, although few of his poems deal directly with his war experiences, and his career in poetry only came after he had already been a successful writer and literary critic.

Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore ( 1823 –  1896) was an English poet and critic best known for The Angel in the House, his narrative poem about the Victorian ideal of a happy marriage.

44. Which of the following is the correct chronological sequence?

(A) A Poison Tree – The Deserted Village – The Blessed Damozel– Ozymandias

(B) The Deserted Village – A Poison Tree – Ozymandias – The Blessed Damozel

(C) The Blessed Damozel – A Poison Tree – The Deserted Village – Ozymandias

(D) The Deserted Village – The Blessed Damozel – Ozymandias – A Poison Tree

Answer: (B)

 1."A Poison Tree" is a poem written by William Blake, published in 1794 as part of his Songs of Experience collection. It describes the narrator's repressed feelings of anger towards an individual, emotions which eventually lead to murder. The poem explores themes of indignation, revenge, and more generally the fallen state of mankind.

2. The Deserted Village is a poem by Oliver Goldsmith published in 1770. It is a work of social commentary, and condemns rural depopulation and the pursuit of excessive wealth.

3. "The Blessed Damozel" is perhaps the best known poem by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, as well as the title of his painting (and its replica) illustrating the subject. The poem was first published in 1850 in the Pre-Raphaelite journal The Germ. Rossetti subsequently revised the poem twice and republished it in 1856, 1870 and 1873.

4. "Ozymandias"  is a sonnet written by the English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822). It was first published in the 11 January 1818 issue of The Examiner of London. The poem was included the following year in Shelley's collection Rosalind and Helen, A Modern Eclogue; with Other Poems, and in a posthumous compilation of his poems published in 1826.


45. The term homology means a correspondence between two or more structures. Who of the following developed a theory of relations between literary works and social classes in terms of homologies

(A) Raymond Williams

(B) Christopher Caudwell

(C) Lucien Goldmann

(D) Antonio Gramsci

Answer: (A)

All the four critics are Marxists.

According to Raymond Williams  Homology, , is distinguished from the concept of correspondence, which can refer to either resemblances between seemingly different practices based on their growth form a shared social process, analogies between the activities, or displaced connections in Adorno, where “while the immediate evidence is direct, the plausibility of the relation depends not only on a formal analysis of the historical social processs but on the consequent deduction of a displacement or even an absence.” 

Christopher Caudwell was the pseudonym of Christopher St John Sprigg (1907 –1937), a British Marxist writer.

Lucien Goldmann (1913 –1970) was a French philosopher and sociologist of Jewish-Romanian origin, he was a Marxist theorist. 

Antonio Francesco Gramsci  1891 –1937 was an Italian Marxist philosopherjournalistlinguist, writer, and politician. He wrote on philosophypolitical theorysociologyhistory, and linguistics.He is famous for his  Prison Notebooks.

46. F. Turner’s famous hypothesis is that

(A) The Frontier has outlived its ideological utility in American civilization.

(B) The Frontier has posed a challenge to the American creative imagination.

(C) The Frontier has been the one great determinant of American civilization.

(D) The Frontier has been the one great deterrent to American progress.

Answer: (C)

 The frontier thesis or Turner thesis (also American frontierism), is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American frontier. ... It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier," said Turner.

47. Which statement(s) below on the Spenserian stanza is/are accurate?

I. A quatrain, unrhymed, but alliterative

II. A stanza of four lines in iambic pentameter

III. An eight–line stanza in iambic pentameter followed by a ninth in six iambic feet

IV. An eight–line stanza with six use of figurative language. Iambic feet followed by a ninth in iambic pentameter

(A) I and II

(B) II


(D) IV

Answer: (D)

 The Spenserian stanza is a fixed verse form invented by Edmund Spenser for his epic poem The Faerie Queene (1590–96). Each stanza contains nine lines in total: eight lines in iambic pentameter followed by a single 'alexandrine' line in iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme of these lines is ABABBCBCC.

48. Match the following texts with their respective themes:

I. Areopagitica (Milton)                                  i. Fashion, courtship, seduction

II. Leviathan (Hobbes)                                   ii. The liberty For Unlicensed Printing

III. Alexander’s Feast (Dryden)                     iii. Absolute Sovereignty

IV. The Way of The World (Congreve)         iv. The power of music


       I II III IV

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) ii iii iv i

(C) iii iv i ii

(D) iv iii i ii

Answer: (B)

Areopagitica; A speech of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc'd Printing, to the Parlament of England is a 1644 prose polemic by the English poet, scholar, and polemical author John Milton opposing licensing and censorship. Areopagitica is among history's most influential and impassioned philosophical defences of the principle of a right to freedom of speech and expression. Many of its expressed principles have formed the basis for modern justifications.

2.Leviathan-Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), it argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could be avoided only by strong, undivided government.

3. Alexander's Feast, or the Power of Music (1697) is an ode by John Dryden. It was written to celebrate Saint Cecilia's DayJeremiah Clarke set the original ode to music, but the score is now lost.

4. The Way of the World is a play written by the English playwright William Congreve.  the play struck many audience members as continuing the immorality of the previous decades, and was not well received.

49. The preliminary version of James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man was called

(A) Stephen Hero

(B) Bloom’s Blunder

(C) A Day in the life of Stephen Dedalus

(D) The Dead

Answer: (A)

 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is the first novel of Irish writer James Joyce. began life in 1904 as Stephen Hero—a projected 63-chapter autobiographical novel in a realistic style. After 25 chapters, Joyce abandoned Stephen Hero in 1907 and set to reworking its themes and protagonist into a condensed five-chapter novel, dispensing with strict realism and making extensive use of free indirect speech that allows the reader to peer into Stephen's developing consciousness. American modernist poet Ezra Pound had the novel serialised in the English literary magazine The Egoist in 1914 and 1915, and published as a book in 1916 by B. W. Huebsch of New York. The publication of A Portrait and the short story collection Dubliners (1914) earned Joyce a place at the forefront of literary modernism.

50. (i) A pastiche is a mixture of themes, stylistic elements or subjects borrowed from other works.

(ii) It is distinguished from parody because not all parody is pastiche

(iii) A pastiche is also known as a ‘purple passage’.

(iv) A pastiche is given to an elevated style, especially in its

(A) (i) and (ii) are correct.

(B) Only (i) is correct.

(C) (iii) and (iv) are correct.

(D) Only (iv) is correct.

Answer: (A)

In literature usage, the term denotes a literary technique employing a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style; although jocular, it is usually respectful. The word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble, but with the advent of postmodernism pastiche has become positively constructed as deliberate, witty homage or playful imitation. A pastiche is a work of visual art, literature, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists. Unlike parody, pastiche celebrates, rather than mocks, the work it imitates.



Dr.Mukesh Kumar Pareek

15 NET/3 JRF/2 M.Phil


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