Monday, March 21, 2022

English Literature NET Paper 2021 June First Shift Solution

mukeshgopaltoday: NET PAPER ENGLISH LITERATURE 2021  JUNE 
SHIFT-1
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
 What can be the use of a poetry that has no true subject except the poet's own selfhood? The traditional use of poetry in the Western world has been instruction through delight, where teaching has meant the common truths or common deceptions of societal tradition, and where esthetic pleasure has meant a fulfillment of expectations founded upon past joys of the same design. But an individual psyche has its own accidents, which it needs to call truths, and its own necessity for self‐recognition, which requires the pleasures of originality, even if those pleasures depend upon a kind of lying against time, and against the achievements of the past. The use of such poetry demands to be seen in a deidealized way, if it is to be seen more truly.
 ‐ Harold Bloom, “The Use of Poetry”
1.In the context of the above which is closest to being true?
  1. There can be no use of poetry. 
 2. Poetry can have no true subject. 
 3. Man may be the true subject of poetry. 
4. The poet himself may be the subject. 
Ans-1
Exp-Bloom is using the concept of deidealisation of poetry and he is of the view that poetry should give facts of personal nature too.
2.What is meant by ‘traditional use of poetry’?
1. Promoting serious ideas 
 2. Promoting doubtful pleasure 
3. Promoting joyous expectations 
 4. Promoting social honesty in life
Ans-1
Exp-Bloom has already said that in past poetry had an onus of instruction and delight.Hence classical view of poetry was to promote serious ideas through poetry.
3.If ‘selfhood’ of a poet is the subject of poetry, then ‘originality’ shall spring from: 
1. some truth of untruths. 
2. truth of self‐recognition. 
3. creating ideal pleasures. 
 4. re‐living the past joys. 
Answer :‐ some truth of untruths
Exp-This is the main argument of this passage that every individual has different truths that may be untruths for many.

Read the following poem and answer the questions that follow:
 No worst, there is none.
 No worst, there is none. 
Pitched past pitch of grief,
 More pangs will, schooled at forepangs, wilder wring.
 Comforter, where, where is your comforting? 
Mary, mother of us, where is your relief?
 My cries heave, herds‐long; huddle in a main, a chief 
Woe, wórld‐sorrow; on an áge‐old anvil wince and sing— 
Then lull, then leave off. 
Fury had shrieked 'No lingering!
 Let me be fell: force I must be brief."'
 O the mind, mind has mountains; cliffs of fall 
Frightful, sheer, no‐man‐fathomed. Hold them cheap 
May who ne'er hung there. Nor does long our small 
Durance deal with that steep or deep.
 Here! creep, Wretch, under a comfort serves in a whirlwind:
 all Life death does end and each day dies with sleep.
 ‐ Gerard Manley Hopkins

4.Which of the following best describes the meaning of the title of the poem, ‘No worst, there is none.’? 
1. It is not worst because there is nothing. 
2. Nothing can be so much bad as this. 
3. No it is worst as nothing is there. 
 4. It is very bad as no one is there. 
 Correct Answer :‐ It is not worst because there is nothing.
Exp-'No worst, there is none. ' This is often paraphrased as 'there's nothing worse than this feeling of depression', but Hopkins did not write 'worse' but the superlative, 'worst': not just 'there is nothing worse than this' but 'there is no worst to this', no end-point where such depression seems to end.
5.Beyond the intensity of known grief, there can be: 
1. no grief than being experienced. 
2. only a new pain more painful. 
3. only the twisted known pains. 
 4. the griefs beyond limits of pain. 
 Correct Answer :‐ no grief than being experienced.
Exp- No explanation is required.
6.Which two of the following are true? 
A. Not all know the intensity or depth of suffering.
 B. Death does not put an end to our sufferings.
 C. Suffering is seen as winds that hinder comfort.
 D. Suffering’s intensity or depth is in the mind.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
2. C and D only 
 3. A and D only 
 4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp-'No worst, there is none. Pitched past pitch of grief' by Gerard Manley Hopkins describes the nature of a speaker's depression and its highs and lows. The poem begins with the speaker stating that he is in a place that is so bad it would be almost impossible to tell if it got worse.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow: ‘Justice’ was done, and the President of the Immortals , in Aeschylean phrase, had ended his sport with Tess. And the D’Urberville knights and dames slept on in their tombs unknowing. The two speechless gazers bent themselves down to the earth, as if in prayer, and remained thus a long time, absolutely motionless; the flag continued to wave silently. As soon as they had enough strength they arose, joined hands again, and went on.                                                                                                 ‐‐Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D’Urbervilles
7. How did the ‘sport with Tess’ end? 
1. She was hanged. 
 2. She was expelled from Wintoncester. 
3. The tormentor married her. 
 4. She died an untimely death. 
 Correct Answer :‐ She was hanged. 
Exp-This passage is the last paragraph of Chapter LIX at the close of Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Its tired and unimpassioned tone suggests the narrator’s weariness with the ways of the world, as if quite familiar with the fact that life always unfolds in this way. Nothing great is achieved by this finale: the two figures of Liza-Lu and Angel “went on” at the end, just as life itself will go on. Ignorance rules, rather than understanding: the d’Urberville ancestors who cause the tragedy are not even moved from their slumber, blithely unaffected by the agony and death of one of their own line. Tess’s tale has not been a climactic unfolding, but a rather humdrum affair that perhaps happens all the time.
In this sense, there is great irony in Hardy’s reference to the Greek tragedian Aeschylus, since we feel tragedy should be more impassioned, like the Prometheus Bound referred to here. Prometheus dared to steal fire from the gods for the benefit of men, thus improving human life, but he was punished by eternal agony sent by the president of the gods. Aeschylus’s view of that divine justice was ironic—just as Hardy’s justice is placed in ironic quotation marks—since it seemed deeply unjust to punish Prometheus so severely. Our judgment of Prometheus’s crime matters immensely. Yet Tess’s suffering, by contrast, seems simply a game or “sport,” as if nothing important is at stake. It is hard to know whether Tess has brought any benefits to anyone, though Angel’s life has been changed and Liza-Lu may grow up to be like her sister. In any case, Hardy hints that Tess’s life may have a mythical and tragic importance like that of Prometheus, but it is up to us to judge how ironic this justice is, or what her life’s importance might be.

8.Who are the ‘two speechless gazers’?
1. Reverend James Clare and Mrs. Brooks 
 2. ‘Liza‐Lu and Angel Clare 
 3. Tess’s two parents 
4. Parson Tringham and Mrs. d’Urberville
Correct Answer :‐ Liza‐Lu and Angel Clare
Exp- This passage is the last paragraph of Chapter LIX at the close of Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Its tired and unimpassioned tone suggests the narrator’s weariness with the ways of the world, as if quite familiar with the fact that life always unfolds in this way. Nothing great is achieved by this finale: the two figures of Liza-Lu and Angel “went on” at the end, just as life itself will go on. Ignorance rules, rather than understanding: the d’Urberville ancestors who cause the tragedy are not even moved from their slumber, blithely unaffected by the agony and death of one of their own line. Tess’s tale has not been a climactic unfolding, but a rather humdrum affair that perhaps happens all the time.
In this sense, there is great irony in Hardy’s reference to the Greek tragedian Aeschylus, since we feel tragedy should be more impassioned, like the Prometheus Bound referred to here. Prometheus dared to steal fire from the gods for the benefit of men, thus improving human life, but he was punished by eternal agony sent by the president of the gods. Aeschylus’s view of that divine justice was ironic—just as Hardy’s justice is placed in ironic quotation marks—since it seemed deeply unjust to punish Prometheus so severely. Our judgment of Prometheus’s crime matters immensely. Yet Tess’s suffering, by contrast, seems simply a game or “sport,” as if nothing important is at stake. It is hard to know whether Tess has brought any benefits to anyone, though Angel’s life has been changed and Liza-Lu may grow up to be like her sister. In any case, Hardy hints that Tess’s life may have a mythical and tragic importance like that of Prometheus, but it is up to us to judge how ironic this justice is, or what her life’s importance might be.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow: The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life Is rounded with a sleep.                                                                  ‐‐  Shakespeare, The Tempest 
9.‘[T]his insubstantial pageant’ refers to:
 1. the shutdown of Globe theatre. 
2. a non‐real performance. 
3. the destroyed mother earth. 
4. enactment with support structure. 
Correct Answer :‐ the shutdown of Globe theatre.
Exp- Prospero speaks these lines just after he remembers the plot against his life and sends the wedding masque away in order to deal with that plot. The sadness in the tone of the speech seems to be related to Prospero’s surprising forgetfulness at this crucial moment in the play: he is so swept up in his own visions, in the power of his own magic, that for a moment he forgets the business of real life. From this point on, Prospero talks repeatedly of the “end” of his “labours” (IV.i.260), and of breaking his staff and drowning his magic book (V.i.54–57). One of Prospero’s goals in bringing his former enemies to the island seems to be to extricate himself from a position of near absolute power, where the concerns of real life have not affected him. He looks forward to returning to Milan, where “every third thought shall be my grave” (V.i.315). In addition, it is with a sense of relief that he announces in the epilogue that he has given up his magic powers. Prospero’s speech in Act IV, scene i emphasizes both the beauty of the world he has created for himself and the sadness of the fact that this world is in many ways meaningless because it is a kind of dream completely removed from anything substantial.
His mention of the “great globe,” which to an audience in 1611 would certainly suggest the Globe Theatre, calls attention to Prospero’s theatricality—to the way in which he controls events like a director or a playwright. The word “rack,” which literally means “a wisp of smoke” is probably a pun on the “wrack,” or shipwreck, with which the play began. These puns conflate the theatre and Prospero’s island. When Prospero gives up his magic, the play will end, and the audience, like Prospero, will return to real life. No trace of the magical island will be left behind, not even of the shipwreck, for even the shipwreck was only an illusion.
10.‘We are such stuff as dreams are made on’ means: 
1. Human life is full of imaginary colours. 
2. Our life is a text of what happened. 
3. We are a bundle of past reality. 
4. There is no substance to human life. 
Correct Answer :‐ Human life is full of imaginary colours.
Exp-We are such stuff / As dreams are made on, and our little life / Is rounded with a sleep.’ These lines appear in Shakespeare’s The Tempest, in one of Prospero’s most famous speeches (‘Our revels now are ended’).
The Tempest is one of Shakespeare’s most enchanting and enchanted plays: a fantasy or ‘romance’ featuring a magician, the ‘monstrous’ offspring of a wicked witch, fairies, a lavish masque, drunken conspirators, young lovers, and much else.
Twelve years before the events of the play itself, a nobleman named Antonio overthrew his own brother, Prospero, from his position as Duke of Milan, because Antonio saw Prospero was more interested in tinkering about with magic than actually governing the city. Prospero and his daughter Miranda (who wasn’t quite three years old when this happened) were exiled from Milan and went to live on an enchanted island which is the setting for the play. Alonso, the King of Naples, supported Antonio in his usurpation of Prospero, as did Alonso’s brother, Sebastian.
The line ‘We are such stuff as dreams are made on’ appears in Act 4 of The Tempest. Prospero gives Ferdinand and Miranda’s union his blessing, telling Ferdinand that he must wait until the wedding-night to go to bed with Miranda. Ferdinand readily agrees.
They then watch the masque (a form of lavish court entertainment) that Prospero has arranged, celebrating their union: this spectacle is performed by spirits Prospero has conjured using his magic. The spirits embody the Roman deities Ceres (the goddess of the harvest), Iris (goddess of the rainbow), Juno (the female counterpart of Jupiter: so, ‘queen of the gods’, if you like), and Venus (goddess of love).
Once the masque is over, Prospero addresses his future son-in-law:
You do look, my son, in a moved sort,
As if you were dismay’d: be cheerful, sir.
Our revels now are ended. These our actors,
As I foretold you, were all spirits and
Are melted into air, into thin air:
Yes, this is the origin of our now familiar phrase ‘vanished into thin air’ to describe something that has disappeared as if it’s simply melted away into nothingness.
Why Prospero is attempting to reassure Ferdinand is a curious question in itself. Because Ferdinand only feels distress over the threat of insurrection from Caliban, Trinculo, and Stephano because Prospero was distressed by it, even though, with his magic (and with Ariel to help him), Caliban poses no serious threat.
This has led some critics of The Tempest to suggest that the masque involving Ceres etc. was an interpolation, added to the play for either theatrical reasons or to bulk out the existing play (The Tempest is not exactly a long play, even as it stands). If this is correct, then Prospero’s ‘Our revels now are ended’ speech was also a late addition, and Shakespeare must now bridge between the masque and Caliban’s attempt to overthrow Prospero and seize control of the island.

11.In “An Apology for Poetry” Sidney discusses the didactic function of poetry by comparing it to philosophy and: 
1. religion. 
2. aesthetics. 
3. history. 
4. ethics. 
Correct Answer :‐ religion.

Exp- An Apology for Poetry (or The Defence of Poesy) is a work of literary criticism by Elizabethan poet Philip Sidney. It was written in approximately 1580 and first published in 1595, after his death.
It is generally believed that he was at least partly motivated by Stephen Gosson, a former playwright who dedicated his attack on the English stage, The School of Abuse, to Sidney in 1579, but Sidney primarily addresses more general objections to poetry, such as those of Plato. In his essay, Sidney integrates a number of classical and Italian precepts on fiction. The essence of his defense is that poetry, by combining the liveliness of history with the ethical focus of philosophy, is more effective than either history or philosophy in rousing its readers to virtue. The work also offers important comments on Edmund Spenser and the Elizabethan stage. Sidney states that there "have been three general kinds" of poetry: (i) "the chief" being religious which "imitate[d] the inconceivable excellencies of God", (ii) philosophical and (iii) imaginative poetry written by "right poets" who "teach and delight".

12.According to Longinus which two of the following qualities apply to ‘great poetry’? 
A. It must be the work of genius, an inspired person.
 B. It must cause a feeling of melancholy in the reader.
 C. It must employ devices of rhetoric.
 D. It must please selectively and on special occasions.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
 1. A and B only 
2. A and C only 
3. B and D only 
4. C and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and c only 
Exp- On the Sublime, Greek Peri hypsous, treatise on literary criticism by Longinus, dating to about the 1st century CE. The earliest surviving manuscript, from the 10th century, was first printed in 1554.
On the Sublime is given a 1st-century-CE date because it was a response to a work of that period by Caecilius of Calacte, a Sicilian rhetorician. It contains 17 chapters on figures of speech, which have occupied critics and poets ever since they were written. About a third of the manuscript is lost.
The author defines sublimity (hypsos) in literature as “the echo of greatness of spirit”—that is, the moral and imaginative power of the writer that pervades his work. This is the first known instance in which greatness in literature is ascribed to qualities innate in the writer rather than his art. The author further suggests that greatness of thought, if not inborn, may be acquired by emulating great authors such as Homer, Demosthenes, and Plato. Illustrative quotations recorded in On the Sublime occasionally preserved work that would otherwise now be lost—for example, one of Sappho’s odes. 

13.In “The Function of Criticism” T.S.Eliot attacked J. Middleton Murry and similar critics for being devotees of what he called: 
1. “the Inner Voice”. 
2. “the Romantic Impulse”. 
3. “the Symbol Hunt”. 
4. “the Muse’s Mystery”. 
Correct Answer :‐ “the Inner Voice”.
Exp- Eliot refutes a fellow critic Middleton Murray's suggestion that progress is possible by following the "Inner Voice". He believes that following the "Inner Voice" is only an excuse for "doing as one likes." He feels that Matthew Arnold is among those who value "tradition and the accumulated wisdom of time." According to Eliot, Arnold distinguishes too sharply between the "creative" and "critical", he overlooks the importance of criticism in the work of creativity. Eliot believes that "the larger part of the labour of an author in composing his work is critical labour: the labour of sifting, combining, constructing, expunging, correcting, testing: this frightful toil is as much critical as creative." He says "some creative writers are superior to others solely because their critical faculty is superior." He believes that the criticism employed by a good writer on his own work "is the most vital, the highest kind of criticism." The vast amount of critical labour may not be apparent, it may have "flashed in the very heat of creation." Just because it is not obvious, and we have no way of knowing what goes on in the mind of the creative artist, we should not assume that this critical activity is absent. Here Eliot is presenting his concept of artistic: activity; in "Tradition and the Individual Talent" , he had talked about "impersonality" and criticized Wordsworth's concept of poetry as a "spontaneous overflow". Here Eliot attacks the idea that "the great artist is an unconscious artist". Art does not arise just from inspiration; a lot of effort has to go into perfecting it, "expunging, correcting, testing",
14.Who among the following compared ‘the mind in creation’ to ‘a fading coal’?
 1. Wordsworth 
2. Coleridge 
3. Shelley 
4. Keats 
Correct Answer :‐ Shelly
Exp- "A Defence of Poetry" is an essay written by English dramatist and poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Although he wrote the essay in 1821, it was published posthumously in 1840 as a part of a collection titled Essays, Letters from Abroad, Translations and Fragments.
A man cannot say, "I will compose poetry." The greatest poet even cannot say it: for the mind in creation is as a fading coal which some invisible influence, like an inconstant wind, awakens to transitory brightness...when composition begins, inspiration is already on the decline.

The composition of poetry is uncontrollable. Because Poetry is innately human, there is no translation from observation that occurs. The source of creation is internal, and we have no control over when or how inspiration strikes. Furthermore, the composition cannot hold up against what was imagined; it will always be inferior because there is no adequate way of capturing that always-elusive Truth. Though Poetry expresses an eternal truth of life, it is truth captured in imperfection.
15.Who among the following considered paraphrase as ‘a heresy’? 
1. Percy Lubbock 
2. Edmund Wilson 
3. I.A.Richards 
4. Cleanth Brooks 
Correct Answer :‐ Cleanth Brook
Exp-"The Heresy of Paraphrase" is the title of a chapter in The Well-Wrought Urn, a seminal work of the New Criticism by Cleanth Brooks. Brooks argued that meaning in poetry is irreducible, because "a true poem is a simulacrum of reality...an experience rather than any mere statement about experience or any mere abstraction from experience." Brooks emphasized structure, tension, balance, and irony over meaning, statement, and subject matter. He relied on comparisons with non-verbal arts in order to shift discussion away from summarizable content.
16.Empiricist linguistics is concerned with : 
1. investigation of the human mind. 
2. directly observable sense‐data. 
3. reason as a determinant of enquiry. 
4. innate language knowledge. 
Correct Answer :‐ Innate language knowledge
Exp- Empiricists maintain that children learn the syntax of their language by using only general learning capacities. Nativists, on the other hand, claim that the acquisition of certain syntactic skills requires additional capacities. They therefore attribute to children an innate syntactic device.
17.In Noam Chomsky’s definition of grammar which two features are drawn from mathematics ?
 A. complexity
 B. abstraction
 C. transformation
 D. generation
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
 2. A and C only 
 3. B and D only 
4. C and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ C and D only
Exp- Rule systems in Chomskyan theories of language
Chomsky’s theories of grammar and language are often referred to as “generative,” “transformational,” or “transformational-generative.” In a mathematical sense, “generative” simply means “formally explicit.” In the case of language, however, the meaning of the term typically also includes the notion of “productivity”—i.e., the capacity to produce an infinite number of grammatical phrases and sentences using only finite means (e.g., a finite number of principles and parameters and a finite vocabulary). In order for a theory of language to be productive in this sense, at least some of its principles or rules must be recursive. A rule or series of rules is recursive if it is such that it can be applied to its own output an indefinite number of times, yielding a total output that is potentially infinite. A simple example of a recursive rule is the successor function in mathematics, which takes a number as input and yields that number plus 1 as output. If one were to start at 0 and apply the successor function indefinitely, the result would be the infinite set of natural numbers. In grammars of natural languages, recursion appears in various forms, including in rules that allow for concatenation, relativization, and complementization, among other operations.
[3/21, 23:33] mukeshgopaltoday: 18.‘Potato’ is a sixteenth‐century borrowing into English from: 
1. Spanish. 
2. French. 
3. German. 
4. Norwegian. 
Correct Answer :‐ Spanish.
Exp-the origin of the word “potato” comes from Spanish “batata”. The Spanish origin is a compound of the Taino batata (sweet potato) and the Quechua papa (potato). The name potato originally referred to a type of sweet potato rather than the other way around, although there is actually no close relationship between the two plants. The English confused the two plants one for the other. In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two. The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard used the term "Virginia potatoes" for this species, and referred to sweet potatoes as "common potatoes". Potatoes are occasionally referred to as "Irish potatoes" or "white potatoes" in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes.

19.Who among the following represents the global spread of English diagrammatically as three concentric circles? 
1. David Crystal 
2. Jenny Cheshire 
3. Braj B. Kachru 
4. Salikoko Mufwene 
Correct Answer :‐ David Crystal
20.Who among the following is the founder of the Survey of English Usage (SEU)? 
1. Randolph Quirk 
2. Henry Watson Fowler 
3. Michael Swan 
4. Bryan Garner 
Correct Answer :‐ Randolph Quirk
Exp- The Survey of English Usage was the first research centre in Europe to carry out research with corpora. The Survey is based in the Department of English Language and Literature at University College London.
The Survey of English Usage was founded as the Survey of Spoken English at Durham University in 1959 by Randolph Quirk, moving with him to University College London in 1960. Many well-known linguists have spent time doing research at the Survey, including Bas Aarts, Valerie Adams, John Algeo, Dwight Bolinger, Noël Burton-Roberts, David Crystal, Derek Davy, Jan Firbas, Sidney Greenbaum, Liliane Haegeman, Robert Ilson, Ruth Kempson, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Rusiecki, Jan Svartvik, and Joe Taglicht. The current director is Bas Aarts.
The original Survey Corpus predated modern computing. It was recorded on reel-to-reel tapes, transcribed on paper, filed in filing cabinets, and indexed on paper cards. Transcriptions were annotated with a detailed prosodic and paralinguistic annotation developed by Crystal and Quirk (1964). Sets of paper cards were manually annotated for grammatical structures and filed, so, for example, all noun phrases could be found in the noun phrase filing cabinet in the Survey. Naturally, corpus searches required a visit to the Survey.
This corpus is now known more widely as the London-Lund Corpus (LLC), as it was the responsibility of co-workers in Lund, Sweden, to computerise the corpus. Thirty-four of the spoken texts were published in book form as Svartvik and Quirk (1980), and the corpus was used as the basis for the famous book A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (Quirk et al. 1985).


21.Who is the author of the short story, “Beethoven Was One‐Sixteenth Black”? 
1. J. M. Coetzee 
2. Nadine Gordimer 
3. Andre Brink 
4. Bessie Head 
Correct Answer :‐ Nadine Gordimer
Exp-Beethoven was One-Sixteenth Black is a book of short stories by Nadine Gordimer, published by Bloomsbury. Reviewing the collection in The New York Times, Siddhartha Deb said: "As she always has, Gordimer offers her readers a rare combination of intimacy and transcendence". Jonathan Gibbs wrote in The Independent: "In her 84th year, Nadine Gordimer has produced a remarkable 10th collection. They show none of the "audacity" Richard Ford called for in his recent anthology of American short stories. Instead, what they show is tact: a quality that seems bound up in Gordimer's decades of experience. There are stories here that a 30-year-old could not have thought to write, let alone written."
In this collection of new stories, Beethoven Was One-Sixteenth Black, Nadine Gordimer crosses the frontiers of politics, memory, sexuality, and love with the fearless insight that is the hallmark of her writing. In the title story a middle-aged academic who had been an anti-apartheid activist embarks on an unadmitted pursuit of the possibilities for his own racial identity in his great-grandfather's fortune-hunting interlude of living rough on diamond diggings in South Africa, his young wife far away in London. "Dreaming of the Dead" conjures up a lunch in a New York Chinese restaurant where Susan Sontag and Edward Said return in surprising new avatars as guests in the dream of a loving friend. The historian in "History" is a parrot who confronts people with the scandalizing voice reproduction of quarrels and clandestine love-talk on which it has eavesdropped."Alternative Endings" considers the way writers make arbitrary choices in how to end stories—and offers three, each relating the same situation, but with a different resolution, arrived at by the three senses: sight, sound, and smell.
22.Arrange the following texts in the chronological order of publication.
 A. This Bridge Called My Back
 B. Sexual Politics 
C. Gender Trouble 
D. The Feminine Mystique
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. B, D, A, C 
2. D, B, A, C 
3. D, A, B, C 
4. B, D, C, A 
Correct Answer :‐ D,B,A,C
Exp- The Feminine Mystique is a book by Betty Friedan, widely credited with sparking second-wave feminism in the United States. First published by W. W. Norton on February 19, 1963, The Feminine Mystique became a bestseller, initially selling over a million copies. Friedan used the book to challenge the widely shared belief that "fulfillment as a woman had only one definition for American women after 1949—the housewife-mother."
Sexual Politics is a 1970 book by American writer and activist Kate Millett, based on her PhD dissertation. It is regarded as a classic of feminism and one of radical feminism's key texts. Sexual Politics analyses the subjugation of women in prominent art and literature in the 20th century, specifically looking at the ubiquity of male domination in culture.
This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color is a feminist anthology edited by Cherríe Moraga and Gloria E. Anzaldúa, first published in 1981 by Persephone Press. 
Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990; second edition 1999) is a book by the philosopher Judith Butler, in which the author argues that gender is a kind of improvised performance. The work is influential in feminism, women's studies, and lesbian and gay studies, and has also enjoyed widespread popularity outside of traditional academic circles. 

23.Who is the author of the essay “Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool”? 
1. Aldous Huxley 
2. George Orwell 
3. Virginia Woolf 
4. Somerset Maugham 
Correct Answer :‐ George Orwell
Exp- "Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool" is an essay by George Orwell. It was inspired by a critical essay on Shakespeare by Leo Tolstoy, and was first published in Polemic No. 7 (March 1947).
Orwell analyzes Tolstoy's criticism of Shakespeare's work in general and his attack on King Lear in particular. According to Orwell's detailed summary, Tolstoy denounced Shakespeare as a bad dramatist, not a true artist at all, and declared that Shakespeare's fame was due to propaganda by German professors towards the end of the eighteenth century. Tolstoy claimed that Shakespeare was still admired only because of a sort of mass hypnosis or "epidemic suggestion".
After having recapitulated Tolstoy's indictment and Tolstoy's criteria for literary merit, which Shakespeare does not meet, Orwell writes:
One's first feeling is that in describing Shakespeare as a bad writer he is saying something demonstrably untrue. But this is not the case. In reality there is no kind of evidence or argument by which one can show that Shakespeare, or any other writer, is 'good' ... Ultimately there is no test of literary merit except survival, which is itself an index to majority opinion. Artistic theories such as Tolstoy's are quite worthless, because they not only start out with arbitrary assumptions, but depend on vague terms ('sincere', 'important' and so forth) which can be interpreted in any way one chooses. Properly speaking one cannot answer Tolstoy's attack. The interesting question is: why did he make it? But it should be noticed in passing that he uses many weak or dishonest arguments. Some of them are worth pointing out, not because they invalidate his main charge but because they are, so to speak, evidence of malice.
After a detailed, itemized analysis aimed to show that a great number of Tolstoy's arguments are false, dishonest and malicious, Orwell identifies Tolstoy's chief quarrel with Shakespeare as "the quarrel between the religious and the humanist attitude towards life." The exuberance with life that characterizes Shakespeare, his interest in everything, the poetic brilliance – the very qualities for which people tend to admire Shakespeare – are precisely the qualities that make him unendurable to Tolstoy, who preached austerity and whose "main aim, in his later years, was to narrow the range of human consciousness. One's interests, one's points of attachment to the physical world and the day-to-day struggle, must be as few and not as many as possible." Since Shakespeare's attitude to life threatens Tolstoy's, Tolstoy is incapable of enjoying Shakespeare and mounts an assault on him in order to try to ensure that others cannot enjoy him either.
Orwell then proceeds to examine Tolstoy himself and notes that the special hatred Tolstoy reserved for King Lear could well be due to the curious similarity of his own story to Lear's, and to the fact that he suffered disappointments of the same nature after renouncing his estate, his aristocratic title and his copyrights.
In conclusion, Orwell mentions how little difference Tolstoy's thunderous attack on Shakespeare has made. According to Orwell, the only criterion for the merit of a work of art is that it continues to be admired, and hence, the verdict on Shakespeare must be "not guilty", since more than a hundred years after Tolstoy's pamphlet Shakespeare remains as admired as ever.

24.Which of the following poems by Robert Browning contains the lines, “Our interest’s on the dangerous edge of things. / The honest thief, the tender murderer, / The superstitious atheist. . .”? 1. “A Death in the Desert” 
2. “Count Gismond” 
3. “Bishop Blougram’s Apology” 
4. “Love Among the Ruins” 
Correct Answer :‐ “Bishop Blougram’s Apology”
Exp-„Our interest's on the dangerous edge of things. The honest thief, the tender murderer, The superstitious atheist.“ —  Robert Browning, Men and Women "Bishop Blougram’s Apology", line 395;
25.Who among the following edited The Cornhill Magazine? 
1. Charles Dickens 
2. Lewis Carroll 
3. William Makepeace Thackeray 
4. Anthony Trollope 
Correct Answer :‐ William Makepeace Thackeray
Exp- The Cornhill Magazine (1860–1975) was a monthly Victorian magazine and literary journal named after the street address of the founding publisher Smith, Elder & Co. at 65 Cornhill in London. In the 1860s, under editor William Makepeace Thackeray, the paper's large circulation peaked around 110,000. Due to emerging competitors, circulation fell to 20,000 by 1870. The following year, Leslie Stephen took over as editor. When Stephen left in 1882, circulation had further fallen to 12,000. The Cornhill was purchased by John Murray in 1912, and continued to publish issues until 1975.
Important works serialised in the Cornhill  include the following:
Framley Parsonage by Anthony Trollope
Wives and Daughters by Elizabeth Gaskell
The White Company and J. Habakuk Jephson's Statement by Arthur Conan Doyle
Tithonus by Alfred Tennyson
Washington Square by Henry James
Culture and Anarchy by Matthew Arnold
Romola by George Eliot
"The Lagoon" by Joseph Conrad
Far from the Madding Crowd by Thomas Hardy
Unto This Last by John Ruskin
Armadale by Wilkie Collins
Emma (Posthumous Fragment) by Charlotte Brontë
Daisy Miller by Henry James

26.Which of the following novels has its epigraph taken from the Katha Upanishad? 1. The Island of Doctor Moreau by H. G. Wells 
2. The Razor’s Edge by Somerset Maugham 
 3. Point Counter Point by Aldous Huxley 
 4. A Room with a View by E. M. Forster 
 Correct Answer :‐ The Razor’s Edge by Somerset Maugham
Exp- A verse in the Upanishad inspired the title and the epigraph of W. Somerset Maugham's 1944 novel The Razor’s Edge, later adapted, twice, into films of the same title (see articles on 1946 and 1984 films). The epigraph reads, "The sharp edge of a razor is difficult to pass over; thus the wise say the path to Salvation is hard." taken from a verse in the Katha-Upanishad – 1.3.14. Maugham had visited India in 1938 and met Ramana Maharishi at his ashram in Tamil Nadu.
The Razor's Edge is a 1944 novel by W. Somerset Maugham. It tells the story of Larry Darrell, an American pilot traumatized by his experiences in World War I, who sets off in search of some transcendent meaning in his life. The story begins through the eyes of Larry's friends and acquaintances as they witness his personality change after the war. His rejection of conventional life and search for meaningful experience allows him to thrive while the more materialistic characters suffer reversals of fortune.
The novel's title comes from a translation of a verse in the Katha Upanishad, paraphrased in the book's epigraph as: "The sharp edge of a razor is difficult to pass over; thus the wise say the path to Salvation is hard.
27.Who is the author of the essay, “What Isn’t Literature?”?
1. E. D. Hirsch Jr. 
 2. Paul Ricoeur 
 3. Hans‐Georg Gadamer 
 4. Terry Eagleton 
 Correct Answer :‐ E. D. Hirsch Jr.
Exp- E. D. Hirsch Jr.
28.Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis (1946) ends with a chapter on:
 1. Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse. 
 2. Wyndham Lewis’s The Apes of God. 
3. James Joyce’s Ulysses. 
 4. George Eliot’s Middlemarch. 
Correct Answer :‐ Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse.
Exp- Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature (German: Mimesis: Dargestellte Wirklichkeit in der abendländischen Literatur) is a book of literary criticism by Erich Auerbach, and his most well known work. Written while Auerbach was teaching in Istanbul, Turkey, where he fled after being ousted from his professorship in Romance Philology at the University of Marburg by the Nazis in 1935, it was first published in 1946 by A. Francke Verlag.
Mimesis opens with a comparison between the way the world is represented in Homer’s Odyssey and the way it appears in the Bible. From these two seminal Western texts, Auerbach builds the foundation for a unified theory of representation that spans the entire history of Western literature, including even the Modernist novelists writing at the time Auerbach began his study.
Mimesis gives an account of the way in which everyday life in its seriousness has been represented by many Western writers, from ancient Greek and Roman writers such as Petronius and Tacitus, early Christian writers such as Augustine, Medieval writers such as Chretien de Troyes, Dante, and Boccaccio, Renaissance writers such as Montaigne, Rabelais, Shakespeare and Cervantes, seventeenth-century writers such as Molière and Racine, Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire, nineteenth-century writers such as Stendhal, Balzac, Flaubert, and Zola, all the way up to twentieth-century writers such as Proust, and Woolf. Despite his treatment of the many major works, Auerbach apparently did not think he was comprehensive enough, and apologized in the original publication in 1946 explaining that he had access only to the 'insufficient' resources available in the library at Istanbul University where he worked; Auerbach did not know Turkish and so could not use locally available sources, and did not have access to non-Turkish secondary sources.
Auerbach was a Romance language specialist, which explains his admitted bias towards treating texts from French compared to other languages. Chaucer and Wordsworth are not mentioned even in passing, though Shakespeare and Virginia Woolf are given full chapters and Dickens and Henry Fielding make appearances.
Chapters
# Chapter title Main works discussed
1 Odysseus' Scar
Odyssey by Homer and Genesis 22
2 Fortunata Satyricon by Petronius, Annals Book 1 by Tacitus and Mark ch. 14
3 The Arrest of Peter Valvomeres Res Gestae by Ammianus Marcellinus
4 Sicharius and Chramnesindus History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours
5 Roland Against Ganelon Chanson de Roland
6 The Knight Sets Forth Yvain by Chrétien de Troyes
7 Adam and Eve The medieval mystery play Mystère d'Adam; St. Bernard of Clairvaux; St. Francis of Assisi
8 Farinata and Cavalcante
Inferno, The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri
9 Frate Alberto The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio
10 Madame Du Chastel Le Réconfort de Madame du Fresne by Antoine de la Sale
11 The World in Pantagruel's Mouth Gargantua and Pantagruel by François Rabelais
12 L'Humaine Condition Essays by Michel de Montaigne
13 The Weary Prince Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2 by William Shakespeare
14 The Enchanted Dulcinea Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes
15 The Faux Dévot Tartuffe by Molière
16 The Interrupted Supper Manon Lescaut by Abbé Prévost; Candide by Voltaire; Mémoires by Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon
17 Miller the Musician Luise Miller by Friedrich Schiller
18 In the Hôtel de la Mole The Red and the Black by Stendhal and Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert
19 Germinie Lacerteux Germinie Lacerteux by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt and Germinal by Émile Zola
20 The Brown Stocking To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf and In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust

29.Which of the following clusters is associated with what Julia Kristeva terms the ‘semiotic’? 
1. Authority, order and patriarchy 
2. Displacement, slippage and condensation 
3. Repression, control and normalcy 
4. Logic, reason and power 
 Correct Answer :‐ Displacement, slippage and condensation
Exp- One of Kristeva's most important contributions is that signification is composed of two elements, the symbolic and the semiotic, the latter being distinct from the discipline of semiotics founded by Ferdinand de Saussure. As explained by Augustine Perumalil, Kristeva's "semiotic is closely related to the infantile pre-Oedipal referred to in the works of Freud, Otto Rank, Melanie Klein, British Object Relation psychoanalysis, and Lacan's pre-mirror stage. It is an emotional field, tied to the instincts, which dwells in the fissures and prosody of language rather than in the denotative meanings of words." Furthermore, according to Birgit Schippers, the semiotic is a realm associated with the musical, the poetic, the rhythmic, and that which lacks structure and meaning. It is closely tied to the "feminine", and represents the undifferentiated state of the pre-Mirror Stage infant.
30.Which two works in the following list are written by Aphra Behn?
 A. Rover
 B. Oroonoko
 C. Soldier’s Fortune 
D. The Princess of Cleve
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
 3. B and D only 
4. A and C only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp- The Rover or The Banish'd Cavaliers is a play in two parts that is written by the English author Aphra Behn. It is a revision of Thomas Killigrew's play Thomaso, or The Wanderer (1664), and features multiple plot lines, dealing with the amorous adventures of a group of Englishmen and women in Naples at Carnival time. According to Restoration poet John Dryden, it "lacks the manly vitality of Killigrew's play, but shows greater refinement of expression." The play stood for three centuries as "Behn's most popular and most respected play."[
Oroonoko: or, the Royal Slave is a short work of prose fiction by Aphra Behn (1640–1689), published in 1688 by William Canning and reissued with two other fictions later that year. It was also adapted into a play. The eponymous hero is an African prince from Coramantien who is tricked into slavery and sold to European colonists in Surinam where he meets the narrator. Behn's text is a first-person account of Oroonoko's life, love, rebellion, and execution. Oroonoko: or, the Royal Slave “centers on the unlucky love story of Oroonoko, an African prince, and the beautiful Imoinda.”
31.Which two of the following are works by Gustave Flaubert?
 A. The Temptation of Saint Anthony
 B. Old Goriot
 C. Therese Raquin
 D. Sentimental Education
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and C only 
2. B and C only 
 3. A and D only 
 4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and C only
Exp- The Temptation of Saint Anthony (French La Tentation de Saint Antoine) is a dramatic poem in prose (often referred as a novel) by the French author Gustave Flaubert published in 1874. Flaubert spent his whole adult life working fitfully on the book.
Sentimental Education (French: L'Éducation sentimentale, 1869) is a novel by Gustave Flaubert. Considered one of the most influential novels of the 19th century, it was praised by contemporaries such as George Sand and Émile Zola, but criticised by Henry James. The story focuses on the romantic life of a young man at the time of the French Revolution of 1848.
The novel describes the life of a young man (Frédéric Moreau) living through the revolution of 1848 and the founding of the Second French Empire, and his love for an older woman (based on the wife of the music publisher Maurice Schlesinger, who is portrayed in the book as Jacques Arnoux). The novel's tone is by turns ironic and pessimistic; it occasionally lampoons French society. The main character, Frédéric, often gives himself over to romantic flights of fancy.
32.Which two of the following conform to liberal humanist thought?
 A. Literature transcends the limits of the age of its origin and so is timeless.
 B. Literature is untouched by the essential human nature which is unchanging.
 C. Literature is devoid of any purpose to enhance life or promote human values.
 D. Identity is a unique essence unaffected by environment and society.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and C only 2. B and C only 
 3. A and D only 
4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and C only
Exp- Liberalism is one of the main western doctrines which have originated from the ideologies of ancient Greece. The concept of humanism has been under the influence of liberal ideas in different political, social, economic and especially educational field. Since the educational field concerned with liberal ideologies, the study of different factors affecting liberal humanism helps distinguishing the concepts explained by each approaches and their similarities and differences. In this qualitative research, it has been endeavored to determine each of these aspects and factors and their effect on various contemporary educational approaches. The results indicate that some of the main factors of liberal humanism have not been considered and in the cases that they have been considered, the understandings of common subjects are different. Each of these approaches tends to study and define the aspects and principles from a certain point of view. 
33.Which two of the following conform to Northrop Frye’s typology of literature?
 A. Mythos of spring: Comedy
 B. Mythos of summer: Satire
 C. Mythos of autumn: Tragedy 
D. Mythos of winter: Romance
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
2. B and D only 
3. A and C only 
4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp- Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays, work of literary criticism by Northrop Frye, published in 1957 and generally considered the author’s most important work. In his introduction, Frye explains that his initial intention to examine the poetry of Edmund Spenser had given way in the process to a broader survey of the ordering principles of literary theory. The four essays address modes, symbols, myths, and genres, corresponding respectively to what Frye sees as the historical, ethical, archetypal, and rhetorical dimensions of literary expression. In his view, the task of evaluating a particular poem or novel falls to the reviewer, while the critic brings to light those aspects of a work that situate it within the body of literature. Although it was not universally embraced, the book became one of the most influential critical works of the mid-20th century.
34.Which two of the following writers does A. D. Hope address through his poetic responses in A Book of Answers?
 A. Tolstoy 
B. Dostoevsky 
C. Mallarme
 D. Goethe
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and D only 
 2. B and C only 
 3. B and D only 
 4. A and C only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and D only
Exp-Only one poet Mallarme is the correct answer.So we can say that C is the only option.
1Mr W.H. to Mr W.S. (Only Begetter of the Ensuing Retort)i"With Ovid's false nose on thy lugubrious face,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 4)
2Celia to the Poet Laureatei"The charming song thou sentst me late,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 6)
3The Sun's Answer to Mr Donnei"Idle young foole, unruly Donne,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 9)
4Lucasta's Reply to Mr Richard Lovelace : Going to the Warsi"The answer thou return'st me, Dick,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 11)
5His Coy Mistress to Mr Marvelli"Since you have world enough and time", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 14-16)
6Milton to Drydeni"To whom then I: if what thou say'st be true,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 20-21)
7Bounce to Popei"Master, by Styx! - which is the poets' oath,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 25-26
)8Thomas Willkinson to the Pen of a Friend (a Poet)i"Pen! with which William Wordsworth scribbles verse,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 29-30)
9The Ocean to Lord Byroni"Two centuries, my lord, have well-nigh passed", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 33)
10A Nightingale to Mr Keats (and to Poets in General)i"Dear Mr Keats, had your delightful ode", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 36-37)
11Arthur Henry Hallam to Alfred Tennysoni"Forgive me, friend, if I find fault;", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 41-42)
12Robert Browning to E.B.B.i"What, fourteen separate ways to love me, pet!", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 44)
13Alfred Lord Tennyson's Reply to Father Gerard Manley Hopkins "No, worse there is none, for him who hears (Hell!) Hop-" (Sonnet on First Looking into Gerard Manley Hopkins)i"No, worse there is none, for him, who heard (Hell!) Hop-", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 47)
14Any Renaissance Beauty in Replyi"Lovers at my window pleading", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 52-53)
15The Lac de Bourget to M. de Lamartinei"Sad poet, still you haunt my sounding shore;", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 60-61)
16Miss Blumlein to Heinrich Heinei"O thank you, Mr Heine;", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 63)
17Beethoven's Revenge : A Medleyi"BEETHOVEN: Don Rasputin! a parlar teco", A. D. Hope , poetry drama (p. 69-72)
18Baudelaire to Mallarmei"As from a sky in flames, crucified on a cloud,", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 76-77)
19The Spectre of W.B. Yeats to Robert Gravesi"My bones are stowed; my sleep is sound;", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 84-86)
20Home Truths from Abroad : Or Dante and Virgil Answer Mr T.S. Elioti"On the bare cornice of Hell's seventh crater", A. D. Hope , poetry (p. 89-92)
35.Which two of the following are true according to the documentation style prescribed by the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook?
 A. If the title page of a book contains an imprint as well as the publisher’s name, omit the imprint and use the publisher’s name.
 B. While giving a URL copy it from the Web browser but omit http:// or https://.
 C. If a quotation extends to more than five lines set it off from the text as block indented an inch from the left margin.
 D. Long titles should be abbreviated using the first letter of key words typed in upper case without intervening space. 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
 2. A and C only 
3. B and C only 
 4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ B and C only

Exp- The Imprint Page is the page that appears on the back of the Title Page. It contains everything we need to know about who wrote the book, who the publisher is, how we can contact them, where the book was printed, what the ISBN is, etc For a book published under a publisher's imprint, state the name of the imprint first and the name of the larger publisher second, separating the names with a hyphen.It means both the names are cited.

To quote 5 or more lines of prose, or 3 or more lines of verse, begin on a new line, set the quoted passage off from the text of your essay by indenting 1″ (2.5 cm) or about 10 spaces from the left margin, double-space between lines, without using quotation marks.
How should long titles be shortened within in-text citations?
Ideally, the shortened title should use the first two or three words of the original title, but in some cases, these first few words may not be descriptive enough. In this instance, the shortened title should utilize key words from the title that can help readers identify the correct source on the Works Cited list. When possible, eliminate articles and prepositions (e. g., a, the, of, on, in) from the shortened title.But it does not mean to abbreviate by taking the first letters without gap.


36.Which two of the following are highlighted in relation to specific historical moments by Stephen Greenblatt? 
A. crisis of meaning
 B. circulation of meaning
 C. production of meaning
 D. deferral of meaning
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
 1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
3. C and D only 
4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp- New Historicism is an approach to literary criticism and literary theory based on the premise that a literary work should be considered a product of the time, place, and historical circumstances of its composition rather than as an isolated work of art or text.
37.Who among the following belong to the Chicago School of critics?
 A. R. S. Crane
 B. E. M. W. Tillyard
 C. Elder Olson
 D. Allen Tate
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and C only 
 2. A and D only 
3. B and C only 
4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and C only
Exp- Chicago critics, also called the Chicago school, group of pluralist, essentially formalist American literary critics—including Richard McKeon, Elder Olson, Ronald Salmon Crane, Bernard Weinberg, and Norman Maclean—who exerted a significant influence on the development of American criticism during the second half of the 20th century.
The group’s members, associated from the 1940s with the University of Chicago, often were called “Aristotelian,” or, more accurately, “Neo-Aristotelian,” because of their concern with form and genre. Their approach emphasized an evaluation of the author’s solutions to specific problems in the construction of a text. One of the most complete discussions of the Chicago critics is found in Critics and Criticism: Ancient and Modern (1952), edited by Crane. A full exposition of the theoretical basis of the group’s method is to be found in Crane’s study The Languages of Criticism and the Structure of Poetry (1953). Wayne C. Booth, one of the second-generation Chicago critics, applied the group’s principles to fiction in The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961) and expanded its theories in later works, moving from poetics to rhetoric.


38.Which of the following poems contains John Donne’s famous conceit bringing a parallel between lovers and the hands of a compass? 
1. “Negative Love” 
2. “Lovers Infinitenesse” 
 3. “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” 
 4. “A Valediction: Of Weeping” 
Correct Answer :‐ A Valediction: Forbidding Mourn
Exp-"A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning" is a metaphysical poem by John Donne. Written in 1611 or 1612 for his wife Anne before he left on a trip to Continental Europe, "A Valediction" is a 36-line love poem that was first published in the 1633 collection Songs and Sonnets, two years after Donne's death. Based on the theme of two lovers about to part for an extended time, the poem is notable for its use of conceits and ingenious analogies to describe the couple's relationship; critics have thematically linked it to several of his other works, including "A Valediction: of my Name, in the Window", Meditation III from the Holy Sonnets and "A Valediction: of Weeping".
Donne's use of a drafting compass as an analogy for the couple—two points, inextricably linked—has been both praised as an example of his "virtuoso display of similitude", and also criticised as an illustration of the excesses of metaphysical poetry; despite detractors, it remains "the best known sustained conceit" in English poetry. As well as citing this most famous example, literary critics point to Donne's use of subtlety and precise wording in "A Valediction", particularly around the alchemical theme that pervades the text.
If they be two, they are two so
   As stiff twin compasses are two;
Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show
   To move, but doth, if the other do.

And though it in the centre sit,
   Yet, when the other far doth roam,
It leans and hearkens after it,
   And grows erect, as that comes h
The analogy here—of a compass in the process of drawing a circle—draws contrasts between the two lovers, where one is fixed and "in the centre sit[s]" while the other roams; despite this, the two remain inextricably connected and interdependent, staying inseparable despite the increasing distance between the two compass hands. Achsah Guibbory identifies a pun in "the fix'd foot... Thy firmness makes my circle just"; a circle with a dot in the middle is the alchemical symbol for gold, an element referred to in a previous stanza.
39.Arrange the following essays in the chronological order of publication.
 A. T. S. Eliot, “The Function of Criticism”
 B. Edgar Allan Poe, “The Philosophy of Composition” 
C. Henry James, “The Art of Fiction”
 D. Virginia Woolf, “Modern Fiction”
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. C, B, A, D 
 2. C, B, D, A 
3. B, C, D, A 
 4. B, C, A, D 
 Correct Answer :‐ C, B, A, D
[3/21, 23:35] mukeshgopaltoday: 40.Arrange the following journals in the chronological order in which they started publication.
 A. The Tatler
 B. The Examiner
 C. The Review
 D. The Spectator
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. A, D, C, B 
 2. B, A, D, C 
 3. C, A, B, D 
4. C, A, D, B 
 Correct Answer :‐ C,A,D,B
Exp- The Review, a newspaper founded by Daniel Defoe in 1704
The Tatler was a British literary and society journal begun by Richard Steele in 1709 and published for two years.
The Spectator was a daily publication founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England, lasting from 1711 to 1712.
The Examiner was a weekly paper founded by Leigh and John Hunt in 1808.
41.Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R 
Assertion A : Postmodern narratives focus on the indeterminate and unstable nature of textuality and subjectivity.
 Reason R : Postmodern narrative acts regard narratives and characters as tentative representations of writing and identity. 
In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A 
 2. Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A 
 3. A is true but R is false 
 4. A is false but R is true 
 Correct Answer :‐ Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A 
Exp- Postmodern literature is a literary movement that eschews absolute meaning and instead emphasizes play, fragmentation, metafiction, and intertextuality. The literary movement rose to prominence in the late 1950s and early 1960s as a reaction to modernist literature’s quest for meaning in light of the significant human rights violations of World War II.
Common examples of postmodern literature include Gravity’s Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon, Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, and Catch-22 by Joseph Heller. Literary theorists that crystalized postmodernity in literature include Roland Barthes, Jean Baudrillard, Jacques Derrida, Jorge Luis Borges, Fredric Jameson, Michel Foucault, and Jean-François Lyotard.
Postmodern literature builds on the following core ideas:
Embrace of randomness. Postmodern works reject the idea of absolute meaning and instead embrace randomness and disorder. Postmodern novels often employ unreliable narrators to further muddy the waters with extreme subjectivity and prevent readers from finding meaning during the story.
Playfulness. While modernist writers mourned the loss of order, postmodern writers revel in it, often using tools like black humor, wordplay, irony, and other techniques of playfulness to dizzy readers and muddle the story.
Fragmentation. Postmodernist literature took modernism’s fragmentation and expanded on it, moving literary works more toward collage-style forms, temporal distortion, and significant jumps in character and place.
Metafiction. Postmodern literature emphasized meaninglessness and play. Postmodern writers began to experiment with more meta elements in their novels and short stories, drawing attention to their work’s artifice and reminding readers that the author isn’t an authority figure.
Intertextuality. As a form of collage-style writing, many postmodern authors wrote their work overtly in dialogue with other texts. The techniques they employed included pastiche (or imitating other authors’ styles) and the combination of high and low culture (writing that tackles subjects that were previously considered inappropriate for literature).
42.Given below are two statements 
Statement I: In Waiting for Godot, it is Vladimir who questions the Boy who comes from Godot towards the end of the two Acts.
 Statement II: In Waiting for Godot, it is Estragon who says, “Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it’s awful.”
 In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
 1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true 
 2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false 
 3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false 
 4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true 
Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are true
Exp- Waiting for Godot  is a play by Samuel Beckett in which two characters, Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo), engage in a variety of discussions and encounters while awaiting the titular Godot, who never arrives.Waiting for Godot is Beckett's translation of his own original French-language play, En attendant Godot, and is subtitled (in English only) "a tragicomedy in two acts". The original French text was composed between 9 October 1948 and 29 January 1949. The premiere, directed by Roger Blin, was on 5 January 1953 at the Théâtre de Babylone [fr], Paris. The English-language version premiered in London in 1955. 
Samuel Beckett, an absurdist playwright, is the writer of Waiting for Godot. This play is the translation of his own French play En attendant Godot. This play is considered the most significant English language play of the 20th century.
When the play opens, two men Vladimir and Estragon are under the tree. Their conversation on various topics slowly reveals that they are there to see a person named Godot. They say they had waited for him yesterday too, but he did not come. So they are not sure of his arrival that day too, but still they keep on waiting. Being poor, destitute, and frustrated the two men ponder about hanging themselves, but as they are not sure about the strength of the tree, they leave the idea of hanging of themselves. Meanwhile, two other men, Pozzo and Lucky, join them. Pozzo is on the way to market so as to sell his slave, Lucky. Lucky shows them his dance and gives a long, but a rambling speech on the goodness of God and the tortures of hell. Lucky and Pozzo take a leave.
When they take leave, a young boy enters and introduces himself as the messenger of the Gods. He tells them that Godot will come tomorrow for sure. Vladimir and Estragon decide to leave, but they do not leave the place. Next day, they come near the tree to continue their wait for the Godot. Lucky and Pozzo enter, but this time Lucky has been dumb and Pozzo has been a blind. Pozzo struggles hard to remember their meeting the day before, but could not remember and again leave the place.
The same messenger boy comes with the news that the Godot is not coming that day but tomorrow. The boy insists that he has not talked to Vladimir yesterday. He leaves the place. At the end of the play, after his departure, Vladimir and Estragon decide to leave the tree but they do not move.
 Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it's awful! 
 Is a dialogue spoken by Estragon in  Act 1 
Estragon breaks out this extremely accurate summary of their circumstances, and indeed the whole play, as they wait for Lucky to begin thinking. It's a bit absurd that he chooses a time when someone has actually come and something is about to happen to complain about nothing happening and nobody coming, but it doesn't diminish the larger truth of his statement.
43.Given below are two statements
 Statement I: New Historicism stipulates that teleological connotations of history have to be eschewed. 
Statement II: New Historicism neither denies nor accepts totalizing explanations of historical events. In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true 
 2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false 
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false 
 4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true 
 Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are False
Exp- Since the 1950s, when Jacques Lacan and Michel Foucault argued that each epoch has its own knowledge system, within which individuals are inexorably entangled, many post-structuralists have used historicism to describe the opinion that all questions must be settled within the cultural and social context in which they are raised. Answers cannot be found by appeal to an external truth, but only within the confines of the norms and forms that phrase the question. This version of historicism holds that there are only the raw texts, markings and artifacts that exist in the present, and the conventions used to decode them. This school of thought is sometimes given the name of New Historicism. The same term, new historicism is also used for a school of literary scholarship which interprets a poem, drama, etc. as an expression of or reaction to the power-structures of its society. Stephen Greenblatt is an example of this school.

44.What was poor Yorick in Hamlet? 
1. Jester 
2. 2. Actor
3. 3. Soldier 
4. 4. Gravedigger 
Correct Answer :‐ Jester
Exp- Yorick is a character in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet. He is the dead court jester whose skull is exhumed by the First Gravedigger in Act 5, Scene 1, of the play. The sight of Yorick's skull evokes a reminiscence by Prince Hamlet of the man, who apparently played a role during Hamlet's upbringing:
Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio; a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy; he hath borne me on his back a thousand times; and now, how abhorred in my imagination it is! My gorge rises at it. Here hung those lips that I have kissed I know not how oft. Where be your gibes now? Your gambols? Your songs? Your flashes of merriment, that were wont to set the table on a roar? (Hamlet, V.i)
It is suggested that Shakespeare may have intended his audience to connect Yorick with the Elizabethan comedian Richard Tarlton, a celebrated performer of the pre-Shakespearean stage, who had died a decade or so before Hamlet was first performed.
45.Which of the following words refers to a sound that is associated with a particular meaning? 
1. phoneme 
2. phonic substance 
3. phonestheme 
4. phonemoid 
 Correct Answer :‐ phoneme
Exp- In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme (/ˈfoʊniːm/) is a unit of sound that can distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Relating to vocal sound: phonic substance, phonic vibrations. 2. In PHONETICS, a term used in contrast with PHONETIC to mean 'relating to speech sounds': the phonic medium, the phonic method of teaching reading, a phonic reader (a book).
A phonestheme (/foʊˈnɛsθiːm/; phonaestheme in British English) is a pattern of sounds systematically paired with a certain meaning in a language. The concept was proposed in 1930 by British linguist J. R. Firth, who coined the term from the Greek φωνή phone, "sound", and αἴσθημα aisthema, "perception" (from αίσθάνομαι aisthanomai, "I perceive").


46.Who among the following Dickens characters appears as a ghost?
1. Daniel Quilp 
 2. Dora Spenlow 
 3. Esther Summerson 
4. Jacob Marley 
 Correct Answer :‐ Daniel Quilp
47.Virginia Woolf’s Orlando opens in 1588 and Orlando, a sixteen‐year‐old boy, writes a poem called: 
 1. “The Evergreen Tree”. 
 2. “The Poison Tree”. 
 3. “The Oak Tree”. 
 4. “The Magic Tree”. 
Correct Answer :‐ “The Oak Tree”
Exp- Orlando, novel by Virginia Woolf, published in 1928. The fanciful biographical novel pays homage to the family of Woolf’s friend Vita Sackville-West from the time of her ancestor Thomas Sackville (1536–1608) to the family’s country estate at Knole. The manuscript of the book, a present from Woolf to Sackville-West, is housed at Knole.
The novel opens in 1588. Young Orlando, a 16-year-old boy, writes a poem called “The Oak Tree.” He finds favour at the Elizabethan court and love in the arms of a Russian princess. A garrulous poet, Sir Nicholas Greene (said to be modeled on Sir Edmund Gosse), discusses literature with him. During the reign of Charles II (1660–85), Orlando is named ambassador to Constantinople and is rewarded with a dukedom. One night he stays with a dancer and cannot be awakened. Seven days later Orlando rises, now a beautiful woman. She returns to England and savours intellectual London society in the age of Addison, Dryden, and Pope but turns to bawdy street life for relief from this cerebral life. She marries to achieve respectability during the Victorian years, and by 1928 she has returned to London, where she is reunited with her friend Greene, who offers to find a publisher for “The Oak Tree.” Back at her country estate, she stands under the great oak and remembers her centuries of adventure.
48.What function of English is exemplified by the use of English in India as a “link language” along with a first language by stable bilinguals in well‐defined social contexts?
1. complementary 
2. supplementary 
 3. auxiliary 
4. equative 
 Correct Answer :‐ complementary 
Exp- English language education in India has been in a multi lingual context. The language which has been one of the languages with three language policy of the state has been introduced at different stages – in different classes at the primary level. The language which was hitherto introduced with 3rd/5th stage class has now got introduced as a language for study even in class I in many of the states in the country. The objectives of teaching English language from the time it get introduced has been to develop what is called the ability to communicate effectively using the language. This implies that it has become more or less the accepted language in the national and international levels as language for communication in the changing scenario, where globalization has been the order of the day. Thus it has become the language of the social market, trade, business and commerce with the advent of technology use in all spheres of life, it has invaluable become the language of technology and in particular communication technology. Further, English has been a link language- a language that touches the different units of the society to exist with a common language particularly in multilingual society like ours. English language has been further considered as window on the world and a library language. This is so because the language in which literatures of different subjects such as language, technology, law, medicine, and related ones do exist in English only. A translation of these literatures with other languages is however in the process. Thus it got the status of library language- the language of reference. And now it has become the language of the internet- to be aninternet literate, knowledge of English language has become vital.
49.Who among the following is said to have believed that the Persian Gulf War (1990‐91) never happened?
1. Zygmunt Bauman 
2. Jean Baudrillard 
3. Jacques Derrida 
 4. Jurgen Habermas 
Correct Answer :‐ Jean Baudrillard
Exp- The Gulf War Did Not Take Place (French: La Guerre du Golfe n'a pas eu lieu) is a collection of three short essays by Jean Baudrillard published in the French newspaper Libération and British paper The Guardian between January and March 1991.
Baudrillard argued the Gulf War was not really a war, but rather an atrocity which masqueraded as a war. Using overwhelming airpower, the American military for the most part did not directly engage in combat with the Iraqi army, and suffered few casualties. Almost nothing was made known about Iraqi deaths. Thus, the fighting "did not really take place" from the point of view of the West. Moreover, all that spectators got to know about the war was in the form of propaganda imagery. The closely watched media presentations made it impossible to distinguish between the experience of what truly happened in the conflict, and its stylized, selective misrepresentation through simulacra.

50.What 19th‐century philosophical term of Russian origin did Friedrich Nietzsche use to describe the disintegration of traditional morality in western society?
 1. absolutism 
 2. cynicism 
 3. nihilism 
 4. anarchism 
Correct Answer :‐ Nihilism
Exp- Nihilism, (from Latin nihil, “nothing”), originally a philosophy of moral and epistemological skepticism that arose in 19th-century Russia during the early years of the reign of Tsar Alexander II. The term was famously used by Friedrich Nietzsche to describe the disintegration of traditional morality in Western society. In the 20th century, nihilism encompassed a variety of philosophical and aesthetic stances that, in one sense or another, denied the existence of genuine moral truths or values, rejected the possibility of knowledge or communication, and asserted the ultimate meaninglessness or purposelessness of life or of the universe.
The term is an old one, applied to certain heretics in the Middle Ages. In Russian literature, nihilism was probably first used by N.I. Nadezhdin, in an 1829 article in the Messenger of Europe, in which he applied it to Aleksandr Pushkin. Nadezhdin, as did V.V. Bervi in 1858, equated nihilism with skepticism. Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov, a well-known conservative journalist who interpreted nihilism as synonymous with revolution, presented it as a social menace because of its negation of all moral principles.
51.Which of the following statements is true of the working group set up by the University Grants Commission in 1978 to study the medium of instruction in higher education? 
1. It recommended a quicker switchover of the medium of instruction from English to Indian languages. 
 2. It observed that English need not be displaced as the medium of instruction although regional languages were quite ready to take over its functions. 
 3. It argued that English as a highly developed language was best suited for India’s industrial and scientific progress. 
4. It asserted that English had the potential to further polarize an already‐divided nation along socio‐economic and intellectual fault lines. 
Correct Answer :‐ It recommended a quicker switchover of the medium of instruction from English to Indian languages.
Exp-Explained elsewhere in the book.

52.In comparative philology and sometimes in modern phonology, what is the term used to refer to the deletion of a vowel within a word?
 1. Aphaeresis 
 2. Equi‐deletion 
 3. Paradigm 
 4. Syncope 
 Correct Answer :‐ Syncope
Exp- In phonetics and phonology, apheresis (/əˈfɛrɪsɪs, əˈfɪərɪsɪs/; British English: aphaeresis) is the loss of a word-initial vowel producing a new form called aphetism (e.g. American > 'Merican). In a broader sense, it can refer to the loss of any initial sound (including consonants) from a word or, in a less technical sense, to the loss of one or more sounds from the beginning of a word.
In phonology, syncope (/ˈsɪŋkəpi/; from Ancient Greek: συγκοπή, romanized: sunkopḗ, lit. 'cutting up') is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. It is found in both synchronic and diachronic analyses of languages.

53.Which of the following statements best describes Terry Eagleton’s views on literature?
1. It is involved in the reproduction of the dominant social order. 
 2. Its raison d’être is to reflect social reality directly. 
3. Its primary purpose is to produce beauty and pleasure. 
 4. It is closely allied to religion in its significance and seriousness. 
 Correct Answer :‐ It is involved in the reproduction of the dominant social order.
Exp- view of literature is criticized by literary theorist Terry Eagleton. He argues that to claim that literature is a special kind of language presupposes the existence of a normal or ordinary language. discussion and adds that any piece of writing can be read non- pragmatically, as any text can be read poetically.
54.Which of the following are true of ‘performance’, as used in linguistic theory?
 A. It is analogous to the Saussurean concept of langue.
 B. It refers to the specific utterances of individual native speakers in actual situations.
 C. It is an innate grammar that suggests humans’ universal ability to use language.
 D. It includes hesitations and unfinished structures arising out of psychological difficulties acting upon the speaker.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
3. A and C only 
4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐  B and D only
Exp- The term linguistic performance was used by Noam Chomsky in 1960 to describe "the actual use of language in concrete situations". It is used to describe both the production, sometimes called parole, as well as the comprehension of language. Performance is defined in opposition to "competence"; the latter describes the mental knowledge that a speaker or listener has of language.
Part of the motivation for the distinction between performance and competence comes from speech errors: despite having a perfect understanding of the correct forms, a speaker of a language may unintentionally produce incorrect forms. This is because performance occurs in real situations, and so is subject to many non-linguistic influences. For example, distractions or memory limitations can affect lexical retrieval (Chomsky 1965:3), and give rise to errors in both production and perception. Such non-linguistic factors are completely independent of the actual knowledge of language, and establish that speakers' knowledge of language (their competence) is distinct from their actual use of language (their performance).
55.Which among the following are the works of George Gissing?
 A. New Grub Street
 B. Agnes Grey
 C. The Odd Women
 D. Mary Barton
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and C only 
 2. B and D only 
3. A and B only 
 4. C and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and C only
Exp- New Grub Street is a novel by George Gissing published in 1891, which is set in the literary and journalistic circles of 1880s London. The Odd Women is an 1893 novel by the English novelist George Gissing. Its themes are the role of women in society, marriage, morals and the early feminist movement.
56.Which of the following are novels by Ian McEwan?
 A. Atonement
 B. The Man with Two Left Feet
 C. The Child in Time
 D. The Rachel Papers Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and C only 
2. B and D only 
 3. C and D only 
 4. D and A only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and C only
Exp- Atonement is a 2001 British metafiction novel written by Ian McEwan. Set in three time periods, 1935 England, Second World War England and France, and present-day England, it covers an upper-class girl's half-innocent mistake that ruins lives, her adulthood in the shadow of that mistake, and a reflection on the nature of writing.
57.Widely regarded as one of McEwan's best works, it was shortlisted for the 2001 Booker Prize for fiction.
The Child in Time (1987) is a novel by Ian McEwan. The story concerns Stephen, an author of children's books, and his wife, two years after the kidnapping of their three-year-old daughter Kate.


58.Which of the following are poems by Nissim Ezekiel that make fun of Indians’ use of English?
 A. “Goodbye Party for Miss Pushpa T.S.”
 B. “Philosophy”
 C. “Very Indian Poem in Indian English”
 D. “Jewish Wedding in Bombay”
 E. “Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher”
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and C only 
2. B and D only 
3. A, B and D only 
 4. A, C and E only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and C only
Exp-The Poems of Nissim Ezekiel Indian English
It is hard to talk about Nissim Ezekiel's Collected Poems without delving into the subject of Indian English. In his own poetry, Ezekiel uses Indian English as a means to adopt the voices of others, especially when he means to satirize those voices and their points of view. There were many contemporary scholars of Ezekiel's who saw Indian English as a degraded version of the English language and deserving of little literary or academic recognition. However, Ezekiel brought Indian English into the spotlight through very famous and entertaining poems like "Goodbye Party for Miss Pushpa T.S.," "Ganga,"  "Soap" and “Very Indian Poem in Indian English.
Questions of class and economic status in India arise when one considers Indian English. Even though English is the official language of India, the usage of English is limited to the elite, who are able to afford English education. Ezekiel brings Indian English, which is a version of English in which many verb conjugations and word order choices come from the speaker's first language, into a serious and academic literary sphere. This, in turn, gives Indian English legitimacy and exposure to those who might have never heard it before.
In "Nissim Ezekiel's Critical Nationalism and the Question of Indian English," Irshad Gulam Ahmed warns against seeing Ezekiel's conception of Indian English as representative of English spoken in India as a whole. He writes, "Ezekiel's [Indian English] is one of the numerous Indian variants of English that captures his imagination and finds a poetic representation in a parodic tone." In other words, there are many versions of Indian English out there, and even though Ezekiel's version may seem astute and funny, it is not representative. Ahmed notes that Ezekiel did not see Indian English as an "autonomous linguistic entity," which implies that he did not see it as a serious language or dialect worth studying. Even more importantly, he saw his Indian identity as separate from the way he spoke English. Regardless of the fact that he was an English professor that spoke English very, very well, he was quintessentially Indian.
Despite the fact that Ezekiel did not see Indian English as a linguistic entity worthy of rigorous study, many linguists have spent their careers tracing the grammatical and structural rules of Indian English. First, speakers of Indian English generally try to avoid "r" sounds at the end of words, meaning they have a "non-rhotic" accent when speaking English. Additionally, they generally make little distinction between the vowel sounds in "cot" and "caught." In a similar vein, the words "hoarse" and "horse" sound different when they are read aloud by a speaker of Indian English. North Indians, in particular, tend to have a sing-songy effect when speaking English. As early as 1986, linguists were publishing studies that compiled their observations on the language.
Indian English remains a point of controversy in India today. Because fluently-spoken English is a class marker, many people strive to speak English as well as they can. In a 1997 study called "Anglo-Indian English," the researcher Gail M. Coelho notes that many people in India have also switched to using English as their first language: "Such research is necessary in India, where, with increasing post-colonial use of English, an increasing number of persons belonging traditionally to non-English-speaking Indian communities have shifted to using English as their first language, and use an 'Indian' language only as their [second language]." However, there are also great numbers of the population who get by with only a partial grasp of the English language because English is their second language. How they communicate with each other has become a kind of language of its own, with traceable linguistic rules and innovative methods to make oneself understood. Because of this, Indian English deserves to be respected as a kind of English, just as much as Australian or American English are seen as being as valid as British English. It is incorrect and even slightly prejudiced to see Indian English as lesser than, say, American English because of the accent it is associated with.
59.Match List I with List II
 List I                                  List II
 (Author)                         (Text)
 A. Sean O’Casey          I.I’m Talking About Jerusalem 
B. Dylan Thomas         II. The Winslow Boy
 C. Terence Rattigan    III. Juno and the Paycock 
D. Arnold Wesker         IV. In the Shadow of the Glen 
E. J.M. Synge                 V. Under Milk Wood
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A‐II, B‐I, C‐III, D‐V, E‐IV 
2. A‐V, B‐IV, C‐II, D‐I, E‐III 
 3. A‐III, B‐V, C‐II, D‐I, E‐IV 
 4. A‐IV, B‐II, C‐III, D‐V, E‐I 
Correct Answer :‐ A‐III, B‐V, C‐II, D‐I, E‐IV
Exp- I'm Talking about Jerusalem is the last play of Wesker Trilogy by Arnold Wesker 
ADA KAHN, the daughter of the 'Chicken Soup' family, marries DAVE SIMMONDS. They move to an isolated house in Norfolk where they struggle through a back-to-the-land experiment. DAVE makes furniture by hand.
Friends and family visit them throughout their 12 rural years charting and commenting on the fortunes of their experiment. It doesn't work, but they end gratified to have had the courage to try
The Winslow Boy is an English play from 1946 by Terence Rattigan based on an incident involving George Archer-Shee in the Edwardian era. The incident took place at the Royal Naval College, Osborne.
Juno and the Paycock is a play by Seán O'Casey. Highly regarded and often performed in Ireland, it was first staged at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin in 1924. It is set in the working-class tenements of Dublin in the early 1920s, during the Irish Civil War period. The word "paycock" is the Irish pronunciation of "peacock", which is what Juno accuses her husband of being.
It is the second of his "Dublin Trilogy" – the other two being The Shadow of a Gunman (1923) and The Plough and the Stars (1926).
In the Shadow of the Glen, also known as The Shadow of the Glen, is a one-act play written by the Irish playwright J. M. Synge and first performed at the Molesworth Hall, Dublin, on October 8, 1903. It was the first of Synge's plays to be performed on stage. It is set in an isolated cottage in County Wicklow in what was then the present day (c. 1903).
Under Milk Wood is a 1954 radio drama by Welsh poet Dylan Thomas, commissioned by the BBC and later adapted for the stage. A film version, Under Milk Wood directed by Andrew Sinclair, was released in 1972, and another adaptation of the play, directed by Pip Broughton, was staged for television for the 60th anniversary in 2014.
An omniscient narrator invites the audience to listen to the dreams and innermost thoughts of the inhabitants of the fictional small Welsh fishing village, Llareggub.
They include Mrs. Ogmore-Pritchard, relentlessly nagging her two dead husbands; Captain Cat, reliving his seafaring times; the two Mrs. Dai Breads; Organ Morgan, obsessed with his music; and Polly Garter, pining for her dead lover. Later, the town awakens and, aware now of how their feelings affect whatever they do, we watch them go about their daily business.

60.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                                                 List II (First line) 
A. “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land...          I. G.M.Hopkins 
B. I am poor brother Lippo, by your leave!                              II. Alfred Tennyson
 C. I caught this morning morning’s minion...                         III. D.G. Rossetti 
D. Look in my face; my name is Might‐have‐been...              IV. Matthew Arnold 
E. The sea is calm tonight...                                                        V. Robert Browning
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A‐II, B‐III, C‐I, D‐V, E‐IV 
 2. A‐IV, B‐V, C‐I, D‐III, E‐II 
 3. A‐III, B‐IV, C‐V, D‐I, E‐II 
 4. A‐II, B‐V, C‐I, D‐III, E‐IV 
 Correct Answer :‐ A‐II, B‐V, C‐I, D‐III, E‐IV
Exp-  1. “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land” is the first line of The Lotos-Eaters  a poem by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, published in Tennyson's 1832 poetry collection. It was inspired by his trip to Spain with his close friend Arthur Hallam, where they visited the Pyrenees mountains. The poem describes a group of mariners who, upon eating the lotos, are put into an altered state and isolated from the outside world. The title and concept derives from the lotus-eaters in Greek mythology.
2.“I am poor brother Lippo, by your leave!” is the first line of Fra Lippo Lippi .It is an 1855 dramatic monologue written by the Victorian poet Robert Browning which first appeared in his collection Men and Women. Throughout this poem, Browning depicts a 15th-century real-life painter, Filippo Lippi. The poem asks the question whether art should be true to life or an idealized image of life. The poem is written in blank verse, non-rhyming iambic pentameter.
A secondary theme of the dramatic monologue is the Church's influence on art. Although Fra Lippo paints real life pictures, it is the Church that requires him to redo much of it, instructing him to paint the soul, not the flesh. ("Paint the soul, never mind the legs and arms!"). Aside from the theme of the Church and its desires to change the way holiness is represented artistically, this poem also attempts to construct a way of considering the secular with the religious in terms of how a "holy" person can conduct his life. Questions of celibacy, church law, and the canon are considered as well by means of secondary characters.
3. “I caught this morning morning’s minion” is the first line of "The Windhover".It is a sonnet by Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844–1889). It was written on 30 May 1877,but not published until 1918, when it was included as part of the collection Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins. Hopkins dedicated the poem "To Christ our Lord".
"Windhover" is another name for the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). The name refers to the bird's ability to hover in midair while hunting prey. In the poem, the narrator admires the bird as it hovers in the air, suggesting that it controls the wind as a man may control a horse. The bird then suddenly swoops downwards and "rebuffed the big wind". The bird can be viewed as a metaphor for Christ or of divine epiphany.
Hopkins called "The Windhover" "the best thing [he] ever wrote". It commonly appears in anthologies and has lent itself to many interpretations.
4. “Look in my face; my name is Might‐have‐been” is the first line of sonnet number 97. A Superscription from the sonnet sequence  The House of Life written by
 DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI. Rossetti's "House of Life" is a collection of 100 sonnets, written over a longer period of time that describe the narrator’s relationship with two women. These are the wife, based on the poet's wife Elizabeth Siddal, and the woman in the affair, based on the poet's mistress Jane Morris. The sonnets within this collection are written as one continuous emotional roller coaster that torments the subject. The collection is divided into two sections, "Youth and Change" (Sonnets 1 to 59) and "Change and Fate" (Sonnets 60 to 101).
"Youth and Change" starts out with the beginning of love and passion to the wife, as two bodies become one. However, the body fades and death soon takes the young wife away. The next sonnets in the collection are based around despair and pain, the narrator does not understand the unnecessary suffering that he has to go through. After these poems full of grieve, a section contemplating death in general is set out. A range of sonnets talks about the experience of death as a concept. The poet discusses the fate of children, couples, and other relatives, even a short mentioning of people that never have been met. The poet starts now to consider God and faith, the inevitable influence of Satan. The poems become more and more desperate. However, in the end the poet can smile again, accepts death as part of life and sees it as the child he never had with his wife. The dead woman becomes and idolized version of love itself.
The second part "Change and Fate", contains several sonnets connected to change in some way. The poet contemplates aging, light and dark throughout the day, the changing of seasons and other natural occurrences. Most of these are directly related to some emotional stance of the narrator within the individual poem. At last, the second woman enters. The passion is tumultuous and fierce, often compared to the first woman.
Rossetti's "House of Life" was compiled and published over more than a decade, a work of personal love and lust the author cherished. The ethereal description of the personal emotions of the narrator make this collection exceptional as it allows for single sonnets to be taken out and read, or the whole thing as one long emotional journey.
5. “The sea is calm tonight...” is the first line of "Dover Beach".It is a lyric poem by the English poet Matthew Arnold. It was first published in 1867 in the collection New Poems; however, surviving notes indicate its composition may have begun as early as 1849. The most likely date is 1851.
The title, locale and subject of the poem's descriptive opening lines is the shore of the English ferry port of Dover, in Kent, facing Calais, in France, at the Strait of Dover, the narrowest part (21 miles (34 km)) of the English Channel, where Arnold spent his honeymoon in 1851. Many of the beaches in this part of England are made up of small stones or pebbles rather than sand, and Arnold describes the sea ebbing over the stones as a "grating roar".
61.Match List I with List II 
List I                                                         List II
 (Character)                                            (Novel)
 A. Winston Smith                                 I. Sons and Lovers
 B. Paul Morel                                       II. Ulysses
 C. ‘whiskey priest’                               III. Nineteen Eighty‐four
 D. Leopold Bloom                                 IV. Decline and Fall
 E. Paul Pennyfeather                                V. The Power and the Glory 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A‐III, B‐I, C‐V, D‐II, E‐IV 
 2. A‐I, B‐V, C‐II, D‐III, E‐IV 
3. A‐IV, B‐III, C‐V, D‐II, E‐I 
 4. A‐V, B‐I, C‐IV, D‐II, E‐III 
 Correct Answer :‐ A‐III, B‐I, C‐V, D‐II, E‐IV
Exp- Decline and Fall, first novel of Evelyn Waugh, published in 1928, a social satire based on his own experiences as a teacher. The protagonist, Paul Pennyfeather, accepts passively all that befalls him. Expelled for indecent behaviour from Scone College, Oxford, he becomes a teacher. When taken up by Margot, a wealthy society woman, he undergoes a series of outrageous experiences. Because of Margot’s involvement in the white slave trade, he suffers imprisonment, which he bears stoically. After Margot engineers his escape from prison, he returns to Scone College as a student of theology, pretending to be Paul Pennyfeather, a remote cousin of the notorious man of the same name.
Leopold Bloom is the fictional protagonist and hero of James Joyce's 1922 novel Ulysses. His peregrinations and encounters in Dublin on 16 June 1904 mirror, on a more mundane and intimate scale, those of Ulysses/Odysseus in Homer 's epic poem: The Odyssey.
The Power and the Glory is a 1940 novel by British author Graham Greene. The title is an allusion to the doxology often recited at the end of the Lord's Prayer: "For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, forever and ever, amen." It was initially published in the United States under the title The Labyrinthine Ways.
Greene's novel tells the story of a renegade Catholic 'whisky priest' (a term coined by Greene) living in the Mexican state of Tabasco in the 1930s, a time when the Mexican government was attempting to suppress the Catholic Church. That suppression had resulted in the Cristero War (1927–1929), so named for its Catholic combatants' slogan Viva Cristo Rey (long live Christ the King).
Paul Morel is the most important character of the novel, Sons and Lovers. The character of Paul is highly autobiographical because he mirrors D. H. Lawrence himself.
Winston Smith is a fictional character and the main protagonist of George Orwell's dystopian 1949 novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. The character was employed by Orwell as an everyman in the setting of the novel, a "central eye ... [the reader] can readily identify with."

62.Arrange the following language areas of the human brain in the order in which they involve in hearing, understanding and saying a word: A. arcuate fasciculus B. anterior speech cortex C. motor cortex D. posterior speech cortex
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A, C, D, B 
2. B, A, D, C 
3. C, B, A, D 
4. D, A, B, C 
 Correct Answer :‐ A, C, D, B
Exp- The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and—in humans—language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside.
Broca's area is also known as the motor speech area. It is near the motor cortex and utilized in speech production, located in the inferior frontal gyrus. This area regulates breathing patterns while speaking and vocalizations required for normal speech.
Brain imaging experiments have also shown that the motor cortex is active when we listen to speech, as well as when we produce it. One theory is that when we hear a sound, such as the consonant 'b', the sound activates the same areas of motor cortex as those involved in producing that sound.
Wernicke area, region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the comprehension of speech. This area was first described in 1874 by German neurologist Carl Wernicke. The Wernicke area is located in the posterior third of the upper temporal convolution of the left hemisphere of the brain.
63.Choose the right chronological sequence of the publication of the following books:
 A. Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid’s Tale
 B. Alice Walker, The Color Purple
 C. Doris Lessing, The Golden Notebook
 D. Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
 1. A, B, D, C 
 2. B, A, D, C 
3. C, D, B, A 
 4. D, C, B, A 
Correct Answer :‐ 3. C, D, B, A
Exp- The Golden Notebook is a 1962 novel by the British writer Doris Lessing. 
The Bluest Eye, published in 1970, is the first novel written by Toni Morrison. 
The Color Purple is a 1982 epistolary novel by American author Alice Walker 
The Handmaid's Tale is a futuristic dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood, published in 1985. 

67.Arrange the following terms in the chronological order of their use in literary theory: 
 1. gynesis
 2. scriptible 
3. negritude
 4. paratext
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
 1. D, A, C, B 
2. A, B, C, D 
 3. C, A, D, B 
 4. B, C, D, A 
 Correct Answer :‐ C, A, D, B
Exp- Gynesis
A term coined by the American feminist theorist Alice Jardine as part of her attempt to bring together certain post-structuralist ideas with those of feminist criticism in her book Gynesis: Configurations of Woman and Modernity (1985). Writing partly under the influence of Julia Kristeva (some of whose works she translated) and of other leaders of ‘French’ feminism, she suggested that the contemporary crisis in Western thought was intimately related to the emergence of new concepts that could be gendered as feminine (e.g. ‘madness’ in the work of Michel Foucault). In this extremely abstract sense, ‘woman’ (not to be confused with any real woman) was undermining old intellectual certainties. This may help to elucidate Jardine's definition of gynesis (which, etymologically, should mean ‘woman-process’) as the ‘putting into discourse of “woman”’. In practice, neither the term nor Jardine's argument achieved any lasting circulation.
scriptible
A term used by the French critic Roland Barthes in his book S/Z (1970), and usually translated as ‘writerly’. In contrast with the easily readable or ‘readerly’ text (textelisible), the writerly text does not have a single ‘closed’ meaning; instead, it obliges each reader to produce his or her own meanings from its fragmentary or contradictory hints. Ideally—and the concept is very much a theoretical ideal rather than a description—the writerly text is challengingly ‘open’, giving the reader an active role as co‐writer, rather than as passive consumer. The nearest actual equivalents of this ideal would seem to be the more difficult works of modernism and postmodernism. See also indeterminacy, jouissance.
Négritude (from French "Nègre" and "-itude" to denote a condition that can be translated as "Blackness") is a framework of critique and literary theory, developed mainly by francophone intellectuals, writers, and politicians of the African diaspora during the 1930s, aimed at raising and cultivating "Black consciousness" across Africa and its diaspora. Négritude gathers writers such as sisters Paulette and Jeanne Nardal (known for having laid the theoretical basis of the movement), Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, Abdoulaye Sadji, Léopold Sédar Senghor (the first President of Senegal), and Léon Damas of French Guiana. Négritude intellectuals disavowed colonialism, racism and Eurocentrism. They promoted African culture within a framework of persistent Franco-African ties. The intellectuals employed Marxist political philosophy, in the Black radical tradition. The writers drew heavily on a surrealist literary style, and some say they were also influenced somewhat by the Surrealist stylistics, and in their work often explored the experience of diasporic being, asserting ones' self and identity, and ideas of home, home-going and belonging.
Négritude inspired the birth of many movements across the Afro-Diasporic world, including Afro-Surrealism, Creolite in the Caribbean, and black is beautiful in the United States. Frantz Fanon often made reference to Négritude in his writing.
paratext
French literary theorist Gérard Genette's term for the framing devices authors and publishers use to contextualize works and generate interest (e.g. blurbs, subtitles, celebrity endorsements, and so forth). As Genette points out in Seuils (1987) translated as Paratexts. Thresholds of Interpretation (1997), although not officially part of the text, the paratext can have a significant influence over the way a text is received.
68.Given below are two statements: Statement I: Unlike scientific research, literary research does not have specific materials for investigation and scientific tools for reaching a conclusion and formulating a theory. Statement II: Literary research consists of critical interpretations of an author’s work to the exclusion of biography and editing of texts. In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct. 
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect. 
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect. 
 4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct. 
 Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect. 
Exp- Scientific research and  literary research both have specific materials for investigation and scientific tools for reaching a conclusion and formulating a theory.  Literary research consists of critical interpretations of an author’s work that also  include  biography and editing of texts.
69.Given below are two statements:
 Statement I: Linguists, being primarily interested in the scientific study of language, approach language dispassionately.
 Statement II: Linguists are necessarily polyglots who bring their own biases to language study.
 In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct. 
 2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect. 
 3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect. 
 4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct. 
Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect.
Exp- Linguists, being primarily interested in the scientific study of language, approach language passionately.
 And  Linguists are not necessarily polyglots though they might bring their own biases to language study in a limited manner.
70.Which of the following are features of the ‘Theatre of the Absurd’?
 A. emphasis on the central role of God in the universe 
 B. presentation of futile actions devoid of any goal
 C. portrayal of situations that point to the meaningfulness of life
 D. lacking in conflicts and dramatic tensions
 E. presenting players in a stasis or drift without definite roles
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A, C and E only 
 2. B, D and E  only 
 3. A, B and D only 
4. B, C and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ B,D,E only
Exp- Critic Martin Esslin coined the term in his 1960 essay "The Theatre of the Absurd", which begins by focusing on the playwrights Samuel Beckett, Arthur Adamov, and Eugène Ionesco. Esslin says that their plays have a common denominator — the "absurd", a word that Esslin defines with a quotation from Ionesco: "absurd is that which has not purpose, or goal, or objective."
The characters in Absurdist drama are lost and floating in an incomprehensible universe and they abandon rational devices and discursive thought because these approaches are inadequate. Many characters appear as automatons stuck in routines speaking only in cliché (Ionesco called the Old Man and Old Woman in The Chairs "übermarionettes"). Characters are frequently stereotypical, archetypal, or flat character types as in Commedia dell'arte.
Despite its reputation for nonsense language, much of the dialogue in Absurdist plays is naturalistic. The moments when characters resort to nonsense language or clichés—when words appear to have lost their denotative function, thus creating misunderstanding among the characters—make the Theatre of the Absurd distinctive.
Traditional plot structures are rarely a consideration in the Theatre of the Absurd.Plots can consist of the absurd repetition of cliché and routine, as in Godot or The Bald Soprano.Often there is a menacing outside force that remains a mystery;
71.Who, among the following, is known to have used elements from the Yakshagana tradition in his theatre?
1. Badal Sircar 
2. Girish Karnad 
 3. Mohan Rakesh 
 4. Mahesh Dattani 
 Correct Answer :‐ Girish Karnad
Exp- Girish Karnad, who composed his plays in Kannada, was born in Mathern, a small town in what is now Maharashtra state. In his autobiography Aadaatha Ayshuya (2011), he writes: “Kannada chose me.” The language of his con-summate literary production was not his mother tongue, Konkani. Instead, the mythic traditions of Kannada literature provided Karnad with a fertile field for his activities. His plays are grounded in ancient Indian legends and also draw on sources from world literature. Time and again he examines the self-division that afflicts the main characters, an internal drama that often emerges in heightened theatrical fashion. Hayavadana (Horse ’s Head,1972) caused a great stir when it was first performed by the Madras Players. It was subse-quently published in Rajinder Paul’s journal Enact in a translation by Karnad himself. The play draws on the Sanskrit classic Kathasaritasagara as well as on the Thomas Mann reworking of the story in The Transposed Heads. Kar-nad uses elements of the traditional Yakshagana theater, with its masks and songs and ritualized dance, to present the existential quandary of the main fig-ures. An important element of Yakshagana is the Bhagwata, a singer-speaker whose presence Karnad exploits to great effect. The play focuses on the trials of Padmini, who finds that her husband, a light-skinned man known for his pow-erful intellect, together with his best friend, a man who is dark and possessed of enormous physical strength, have made a pact and each committed sui-cide. Unrequited love for Padmini has driven each man to this dire end.


72.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                List II
 (Writer)                                                          (Book)
 A. Bankimchandra Chatterjee                I. Untouchable 
B. Mulk Raj Anand                                    II. Rajmohan's Wife
 C. Panchkouree Khan                              III. Stories from Indian Christian Life
 D. Kamala Sathianadhan                         IV. The Revelations of an Orderly
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
2. A ‐ I, B ‐ III, C ‐ II, D ‐ IV 
3. A ‐ III, B ‐ IV, C ‐ II, D ‐ I 
 4. A ‐ IV, B ‐ I, C ‐ II, D ‐ III 
Correct Answer :‐ A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III
Exp- Kamala Satthianadhan (1880–1950) was an Indian writer, feminist, and editor. She established and edited the Indian Ladies' Magazine, a popular local publication that was in circulation between 1901 and 1938.
Rajmohan's Wife: A Novel is a famous novel by
Baṅkimacandra Caṭṭopādhyāẏa
Marking Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's debut as a writer, Rajmohan's Wife is the first published novel in English by an Indian. The novel was serialised in 1864 in a short-lived magazine published from Calcutta, but it did not appear as a book in the author's lifetime. The book soon went into oblivion. A neglected but an interesting book, its plots and characters symbolically map the birth of modern India as well as the modern Indian woman through political, cultural and social contexts.
Untouchable is a novel by Mulk Raj Anand published in 1935. The novel established Anand as one of India's leading English authors.The book was inspired by his aunt's experience when she had a meal with a Muslim woman and was treated as an outcast by her family. The plot of this book, Anand's first, revolves around the argument for eradicating the caste system. It depicts a day in the life of Bakha, a young "sweeper", who is "untouchable" due to his work of cleaning latrines.
The Revelations Of An Orderly: Being An Attempt To Expose The Abuses Of Administration By The Relation Of Everyday Occurrences In The Mofussil Courts (1849) is a famous book 
by Panchkouree Khan


73.Which of these UK universities saw the first institutional incorporation of Cultural Studies?
1. Bath Spa University 
 2. Oxford University 
3. University of Birmingham 
 4. Cambridge University 
 Correct Answer :‐ University of Birmingham
Exp- cultural studies, interdisciplinary field concerned with the role of social institutions in the shaping of culture. Cultural studies emerged in Britain in the late 1950s and subsequently spread internationally, notably to the United States and Australia. Originally identified with the Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham (founded 1964) and with such scholars as Richard Hoggart, Stuart Hall, and Raymond Williams, cultural studies later became a well-established field in many academic institutions, and it has since had broad influence in sociology, anthropology, historiography, literary criticism, philosophy, and art criticism. 
74.Which of these poets wrote a poem that served to inspire W B Yeats to write his own poem, “When you are Old”?
1. Francois Villon 
2. Pierre de Ronsard 
3. Edmund Spencer 
 4. Heinrich Heine 
 Correct Answer :‐ 
 Correct Answer :‐ Pierre de Ronsard
Exp- When you are old and grey and full of sleep,
And nodding by the fire, take down this book,
And slowly read, and dream of the soft look
Your eyes had once, and of their shadows deep.
That is how it begins.  The lines are musical, though romantic and somewhat sentimental in their melancholy.  But you would not know, if someone did not tell you, that Yeats has borrowed these lines from the 16th-century French poet Pierre de Ronsard (1524-1585) who wrote in his Sonnets pour Hélène, (1587)

75.Which of these does Meenakshi Mukherjee propose as the possible target readership of early Indian English novel?
 A. A pan‐Indian readership
 B. A localized Indian readership
 C. A British readership
 D. The colonial administrator in India
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
3. C and D only 
 4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp- Her book The Twice Born Fiction: Themes and Techniques of Indian Novel in English made her a pioneer of contextualising and situating novels in their historical and social context while incorporating the various intersections such as class, gender, culture and imperialism. The accommodation of Indian writing in English in the English canon is a momentous achievement because it provides autonomy to this genre as it is not merged with Commonwealth writing or is merely labeled as an imitation. The polemics of criticism in earlier days refused to accept it as an area of academic scrutiny as it did not proliferate to the degree it has now. Indian writing in English belongs to a particular class of people who are of Indian origin and have learnt the language well to be writers of that language, and those who are able to read the English language and are to an extent more proficient and comfortable in English than in their mother tongues. 
76.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                    List II
 (Poet)                                                 (Language)
 A. Charles Baudelaire                       I. French 
B. Heinrich Heine                              II. German
 C. Sylvia Path                                    III. English
 D. Jose Marti                                     IV. Spanish
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐ I, B ‐ II, C ‐ III, D ‐ IV 
2. A ‐ II, B ‐ III, C ‐ IV, D ‐ I 
3. A ‐ III, B ‐ IV, C ‐ I, D ‐ II 
4. A ‐ IV, B ‐ I, C ‐ II, D ‐ III 
Correct Answer :‐ A ‐ I, B ‐ II, C ‐ III, D ‐ IV
Exp- Charles Pierre Baudelaire 9 April 1821 – 31 August 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist and art critic.
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine ; 13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856- was a German poet, writer and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry, which was set to music in the form of lieder (art songs) by composers such as Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert.
Sylvia Plath (/plæθ/; October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short-story writer. She is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry and is best known for two of her published collections, The Colossus and Other Poems (1960) and Ariel (1965), as well as The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel published shortly before her death in 1963. The Collected Poems were published in 1981, which included previously unpublished works. For this collection Plath was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in Poetry in 1982, making her the fourth to receive this honour posthumously.
José Julián Martí Pérez (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse maɾˈti]; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban nationalist, poet, philosopher, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a Cuban national hero because of his role in the liberation of his country from Spain. He was also an important figure in Latin American literature. He was very politically active and is considered an important philosopher and political theorist.
77.Which of these constitute the preoccupations of the protagonist of Upamanyu Chatterjee’s English, August?
 A. Marijuana
 B. Magic
 C. Monotheism
 D. Marcus Aurelius
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
 2. A and D only 
 3. B and C only 
 4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and D only

Exp- English, August: An Indian Story is a novel by Indian author Upamanyu Chatterjee written in English, first published in 1988. It was adapted into a film of the same name in 1994. The novel portrays the struggle of a civil servant who is posted in a rural area and is considered to be a very authentic portrayal of the state of Indian youth in the 1980s.
The posting starts off as a tremendous culture shock for Agatsya, a city boy. However, it eventually becomes one long philosophical journey and a process of self discovery. Written by a civil servant, the novel manages to capture the essence of an entire generation of Indians, whose urban realities jar in sharp contrast to that of rural India.
Agatsya Sen's sense of dislocation is only compounded by his extreme lack of interest in the bizarre ways of government and administration. While his mind is dominated by marijuana, masturbation and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, images from his previous urban life. His work in Madna would ideally require him to be a devoted servant of the people.
78.What was the name of the journal published from Bowling Green University beginning 1969, which carried essays on amusement parks, comics and detective films? 
 1. Journal of Mass Culture 
 2. Journal of Popular Culture 
3. Journal of Public Culture 
4. Journal of Culture Studies 
Correct Answer :‐ Journal of Popular Culture
Exp- The Bowling Green State University Popular Press was begun by Ray and Pat Browne in 1967 as a means to publish the Journal of Popular Culture. 
79.Which of these best describes Shyam Selvadurai’s novel, Funny Boy? 
1. Novel of manners 
2. Sentimental novel 
 3. Coming‐of‐age novel 
4. Picaresque novel 
 Correct Answer :‐ Coming‐of‐age novel
Exp- Funny Boy is a coming-of-age novel by Sri Lankan-Canadian author Shyam Selvadurai. First published by McClelland and Stewart in September 1994, the novel won the Lambda Literary Award for Gay Fiction and the Books in Canada First Novel Award.
Set in Sri Lanka where Selvadurai grew up, Funny Boy is constructed in the form of six poignant stories about a boy coming to age within a wealthy Tamil family in Colombo. Between the ages of seven and fourteen, he explores his sexual identity, and encounters the Sinhala-Tamil tensions leading up to the 1983 riots.

80.Which of these questions would Cultural Studies be most interested in asking?
 A. Who decides what is to be produced?
 B. Who can afford the artifact?
 C. How is the artifact marketed?
 D. What is the register of speech in the artifact?
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A, B and C only 
 2. A, C and D only 
3. B, C and D only 
 4. A, B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ No answer
Exp-This question falls in the category of Material Cultural Studies that include all the four choices.
Material culture is the aspect of social reality grounded in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes the usage, consumption, creation, and trade of objects as well as the behaviors, norms, and rituals that the objects create or take part in. Some scholars also include other intangible phenomena that include sound, smell and events, while some even consider language and media as part of it. The term is most commonly used in archaeological and anthropological studies, to define material or artifacts as they are understood in relation to specific cultural and historic contexts, communities, and belief systems. Material culture can be described as any object that humans use to survive, define social relationships, represent facets of identity, or benefit peoples' state of mind, social, or economic standing. Material culture is contrasting to symbolic culture, which includes nonmaterial symbols, beliefs, and social constructs.
The scholarly analysis of material culture, which can include both human made and natural or altered objects, is called material culture studies.


81.Who, among the following, played the most significant role in mobilizing the concept of ‘cultural intermediaries’? 
1. Luis Althusser 
2. Karl Marx 
 3. Pierre Bourdieu 
 4. Jurgen Habermas 
 Correct Answer :‐ Pierre Bourdieu
Exp- Cultural intermediaries mediate how goods are perceived by others, by framing those goods as culturally legitimate and thereby adding symbolic value to them. Informed by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, new economic sociology, and cultural economy, research on cultural intermediaries has focused on specific occupations, and increasingly on the interconnections between cultural intermediaries within commodity chains and cultural fields. Issues highlighted include the role of cultural intermediaries as taste makers; the implications of cultural capital and personal disposition for professional credibility; the material practices, devices, and dispositions involved in the qualification of goods and governmental mobilization of consumption; and the significance of the agency and everyday practices of market actors for the production of consumer culture.
82.From whom does Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak borrow the term ‘subaltern’?
1. Karl Marx 
 2. Friedrich Engels 
 3. Louis Althusser 
4. Antonio Gramsci 
Correct Answer :‐ 
Exp- Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s famous use of the term in her celebrated essay CAN SUBALTERN SPEAK? She is interested in seeing how truth is constructed rather than in exposing error. Fundamental to Spivak's theory is the concept of Subaltern. The 'Subaltern' is a military term which means 'of lower rank'. She borrowed this term from Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci.
83.Which of the following does the Subaltern Studies project contend?
 A. Traditional historiography celebrated the role of the subalterns.
 B. Traditional history of India’s freedom movement celebrates the contribution of select icons.
 C. Traditional historiography highlights the dominant strands of India’s freedom struggle.
 D. Subaltern Studies historiography highlights the dominant strands of India’s freedom struggle. Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only. 
2. B and C only. 
3. A and C only. 
4. B and D only. 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only.
Exp- Subaltern studies analyzes the “binary relationship” of the subaltern and ruling classes, and thus studies the interplay of dominance and subordination in colonial systems, most notably India, though the methods of the movement have since been applied to other nations, spaces, and historical moments.
Subaltern Studies emerged around 1982 as a series of journal articles published by Oxford University Press in India.  A group of Indian scholars trained in the west wanted to reclaim their history.  Its main goal was to retake history for the underclasses, for the voices that had not been heard previous.  Scholars of the subaltern hoped to break away from histories of the elites and the Eurocentric bias of current imperial history.  In the main, the wrote against the "Cambridge School" which seemed to uphold the colonial legacy—i.e. it was elite-centered.  Instead, they focused on subaltern in terms of class, caste, gender, race, language and culture.  They espoused the idea that there may have been political dominance, but that this was not hegemonic.  The primary leader was Ranajit Guha who had written works on peasant uprisings in India.  Another of the leading scholars of subaltern studies is Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.  She draws on a number of theoretical positions in her analysis of Indian history: deconstruction, marxism, feminism. She was highly critical of current histories of India that were told from the vantage point of the colonizers and presented a story of the colony via the British adminstrators (Young, 159).  What she and other historians (including Ranajit Guha) wanted was to reclaim their history, to give voice to the subjected peoples.  Any other history merely reconstructs imperialist hegemony and does not give voice to the people—those who resisted, those who supported, those who experienced colonial incursion.  According to the Subaltern Studies group, this history is designed to be a "contribution made by people on their own, that it, independently of the élite" (quoted in Young 160).  They did this by establishing a journal out of Oxford, Delhi and Australia and called it Subaltern Studies to write a history against the grain and restore history to the subordinated.  In other words, to give the common people back their agency.
84.Which of these did the Wood’s Despatch (1854) seek to propagate?
 A. Impart Western knowledge to Indians 
B. Restrict access to English learning in India
 C. Educate British officers in Sanskrit and Persian
 D. Create a class of public servants
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
 3. A and C only 
 4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp- Charles Wood Despatch – 1854
In his despatch, he emphasised on the education of art, science, philosophy and literature of Europe. In short, the propagation of European knowledge was the motto of the Wood's Despatch. According to the despatch, for higher education, the chief medium of instruction would be English.
85.Arrange the following periodicals in the chronological order in which they started publication:
 A. The Spectator
 B. The Tatler
 C. The Rambler
 D. The Critical Review
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A, B, C, D 
2. B, A, C, D 
3. B, C, D, A 
 4. A, D, B, C 
 Correct Answer :‐ A, B, C, D
Exp-Answered elsewhere in the book.
86.Who, among these, does Gabriel Garcia Marquez name right in the beginning of his Nobel Prize address? 
A. Ferdinand Magellan
 B. Christopher Columbus
 C. Marco Polo 
D. Antonio Pigafetta 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
2. B and C only 
3. C and D only 
 4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and D only
Exp- The solitude of Latin America
Antonio Pigafetta, a Florentine navigator who went with Magellan on the first voyage around the world, wrote, upon his passage through our southern lands of America, a strictly accurate account that nonetheless resembles a venture into fantasy. In it he recorded that he had seen hogs with navels on their haunches, clawless birds whose hens laid eggs on the backs of their mates, and others still, resembling tongueless pelicans, with beaks like spoons. He wrote of having seen a misbegotten creature with the head and ears of a mule, a camel’s body, the legs of a deer and the whinny of a horse. He described how the first native encountered in Patagonia was confronted with a mirror, whereupon that impassioned giant lost his senses to the terror of his own image.
87.Which of these constitutes the only extant trilogy from ancient Greek tragedy?
1. King Oedipus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone 
2. Agamemnon, Choephori, The Eumenides 
3. Agamemnon, Orestes, The Eumenides 
 4. King Oedipus, Orestes, Antigone 
Correct Answer :‐ King Oedipus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone
Exp- The three projects that compose the Oedipus Trilogy include: The Oedipus Project, The Oedipus at Colonus Project, and Antigone.
88.Match List I with List II 
List I                                          List II
 (Author)                                   (Form)
 A. Pindar                                   I. Epinicia
 B. Menander                             II. Old Comedy 
C. Sappho                                    III. Lyric poetry
 D. Aristophanes                        IV. New Comedy
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A ‐ I, B ‐ III, C ‐ II, D ‐ IV 
2. A ‐ I, B ‐ IV, C ‐ III, D ‐ II 
3. A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
4. A ‐ III, B ‐ IV, C ‐ I, D ‐ II 
 Correct Answer :‐ A ‐ I, B ‐ III, C ‐ II, D ‐ IV
Exp- The epinikion or epinicion (plural epinikia or epinicia, Greek ἐπινίκιον, from epi-, "on," + nikê, "victory") is a genre of occasional poetry also known in English as a victory ode. In ancient Greece, the epinikion most often took the form of a choral lyric, commissioned for and performed at the celebration of an athletic victory in the Panhellenic Games and sometimes in honor of a victory in war. Major poets in the genre are Simonides, Bacchylides, and Pindar.
Old Comedy, initial phase of ancient Greek comedy (c. 5th century BC), known through the works of Aristophanes. Old Comedy plays are characterized by an exuberant and high-spirited satire of public persons and affairs. Composed of song, dance, personal invective, and buffoonery, the plays also include outspoken political criticism and comment on literary and philosophical topics. The plays, consisting of loosely related episodes, were first performed in Athens for the religious festival of Dionysus. They gradually took on a six-part structure: an introduction, in which the basic fantasy is explained and developed; the parodos, entry of the chorus; the contest, or agon, a ritualized debate between opposing principals, usually stock characters; the parabasis, in which the chorus addresses the audience on the topics of the day and hurls scurrilous criticism at prominent citizens; a series of farcical scenes; and a final banquet or wedding. The chorus often were dressed as animals, while the characters wore street dress and masks with grotesque features.
Old Comedy sometimes is called Aristophanic comedy, after its most famous exponent, whose 11 surviving plays include The Clouds (423 BC), a satire on the misuse of philosophical argument directed chiefly against Socrates, and The Frogs (405 BC), a satire on Greek drama directed chiefly against Euripides. Other Old Comedy writers include Cratinus, Crates, Pherecrates, and Eupolis.
New Comedy, Greek drama from about 320 BC to the mid-3rd century BC that offers a mildly satiric view of contemporary Athenian society, especially in its familiar and domestic aspects. Unlike Old Comedy, which parodied public figures and events, New Comedy features fictional average citizens and has no supernatural or heroic overtones. Thus, the chorus, the representative of forces larger than life, recedes in importance and becomes a small band of musicians and dancers who periodically provide light entertainment.
The plays commonly deal with the conventionalized situation of thwarted lovers and contain such stock characters as the cunning slave, the wily merchant, the boastful soldier, and the cruel father. One of the lovers is usually a foundling, the discovery of whose true birth and identity makes marriage possible in the end. Although it does not realistically depict contemporary life, New Comedy accurately reflects the disillusioned spirit and moral ambiguity of the bourgeois class of this period.
Menander introduced the New Comedy in his works about 320 BC and became its most famous exponent, writing in a quiet, witty style. Although most of his plays are lost, Dyscolus (“The Grouch”) survives, along with large parts of Perikeiromenē (“The Shorn Girl”), Epitrepontes (“The Arbitration”), and Samia (“The Girl from Samos”). Menander’s plays are mainly known through the works of the Roman dramatists Plautus and Terence, who translated and adapted them, along with other stock plots and characters of Greek New Comedy, for the Roman stage. Revived during the Renaissance, New Comedy influenced European drama down to the 18th century. The commedia erudita, plays from printed texts popular in Italy in the 16th century, and the improvisational commedia dell’arte that flourished in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century used characters and plot conventions that originated in Greek New Comedy. They were also used by Shakespeare and other Elizabethan and Restoration dramatists. Rodgers and Hart’s The Boys from Syracuse (1938) is a musical version of Shakespeare’s Comedy of Errors, which in turn is based on Plautus’s Menaechmi and Amphitruo, which are adaptations of Greek New Comedy. 
89.Which of these does the book How to read Donald Duck identify as an important element in its analysis of imperialist ideology in the Walt Disney comicbook? 
1. impoverished royalty 
 2. noble savage 
3. scientific magic 
 4. heartless civilisation 
Correct Answer :‐ heartless civilisation
Exp- How to Read Donald Duck (Spanish: Para leer al Pato Donald) is a 1971 book-length essay by Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart that critiques Disney comics from a Marxist point of view as capitalist propaganda for American corporate and cultural imperialism. It was first published in Chile in 1971, became a bestseller throughout Latin America and is still considered a seminal work in cultural studies.It was reissued in August 2018 to a general audience in the United States, with a new introduction by Dorfman, by OR Books.
 The book itself is dense, at times complex, yet fun, witty and angry. It explores a sample of comics and, despite an attempt by Disney to stop them, it includes images from the comics too.
They examine a number of themes in the comics as they weave their analysis. They consider Donald Duck and employment, which in Disney “is a means of consumption rather than production”.
Donald Duck is frequently depicted as looking for work but his financial obligations are not based on need like those which ordinary workers have. His earnings are spent on “the superfluous”. He prefers easy work and is often fired because of his incompetence.
The authors consider that, “To the reader, Donald represents the unemployed. Not the real unemployed caused historically by the structural contradictions of capitalism, but the Disney-style unemployment based on the personality of the employee.”
They examine the phenomena that Disney is a “universe of uncles and granduncles, nephews and cousins” and no parents, despite the appearance of babies. Disney’s defenders point to this being a “proof of innocence…and proper restraint”.
The authors retort that Disney is concealing “normal sexuality”. Women in Disney are a “humble servant or constantly courted beauty queen,” and those who stray from “the feminine code…are allied with the powers of darkness” — for example, Magica de Spell.
Communities from the “Third World” are “socially underdeveloped peoples who live in…vast islands and plateaux of ignorance.”
Caustic and furious — “Reading Disney is like having one’s own exploited condition rammed with honey down one’s throat” — How to Read Donald Duck is a fascinating book.
90.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                      List II
 (Play)                                                 (Playwright) 
A. Bertolt Brecht                              I. Cat on a Hot Tin Roof 
B. Tennessee Williams                    II. Life of Galileo 
C. Vaclav Havel                                 III. Miss Julie 
D. August Strindberg                      IV. Temptation 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐ I, B ‐ II, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
 2. A ‐ III, B ‐ II, C ‐ I, D ‐ IV 
3. A ‐ IV, B ‐ III, C ‐ I, D ‐ II 
4. A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
 Correct Answer :‐ 4. A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III
Exp- Cat on a Hot Tin Roof is a three-act play written by Tennessee Williams.
Life of Galileo is a 1938 play by German playwright Bertolt Brecht. The play was first performed in 1943 in Zurich.
Miss Julie is a naturalistic play written in 1888 by August Strindberg. It is set on Midsummer's Eve and the following morning, which is Midsummer and the Feast Day of St. John the Baptist. The setting is an estate of a count in Sweden. Miss Julie is drawn to a senior servant, a valet named Jean, who is well-traveled and well-read. The action takes place in the kitchen of Miss Julie's father's manor, where Jean's fiancée, a servant named Christine, cooks and sometimes sleeps while Jean and Miss Julie talk.
Temptation is a Faustian play written by Czech playwright Václav Havel in 1985 that premiered in Austria on 22 May 1986 in the Burgtheater in Vienna.

91.Which of these plays by Girish Karnad shares its theme with Thomas Mann’s The Transposed Heads? 
 1. Hayavadana 
2. Yayati 
3. Nagamandala 
 4. Tale Danda 
Correct Answer :‐ Hayavadana
Exp- Hayavadana (meaning: Horse face) is a 1971 Indian Kannada language two-act play written by Girish Karnad. The plot is based on Kathasaritsagara and Thomas Mann's retelling of Transposed Heads.Its twin play is Nagamandala (1988). Hayavadana presents the story of two friends Devdutta and Kaplia; and their love interest Padmini.
92.With which of these is Ngugi wa Thiongo generally associated?
1. Decolonising the State 
 2. Decolonising the Mind 
3. Decolonising the Body 
4. Decolonising the Polity 
 Correct Answer :‐ Decolonising the Mind
Exp- Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o   is a Kenyan writer and academic who writes primarily in Gikuyu and who formerly wrote in English. His work includes novels, plays, short stories, and essays, ranging from literary and social criticism to children's literature. He is the founder and editor of the Gikuyu-language journal Mũtĩiri. His short story The Upright Revolution: Or Why Humans Walk Upright, is translated into 100 languages from around the world.
His later works include Detained, his prison diary (1981), Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (1986), an essay arguing for African writers' expression in their native languages rather than European languages, in order to renounce lingering colonial ties and to build an authentic African literature, and Matigari (translated by Wangui wa Goro), (1987), one of his most famous works, a satire based on a Gikuyu folk tale.


93.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                  List II
 (Novel)                                             (Author)
 A. Don Quixote                                  I. Machado de Assis
 B. Sorrows of Young Werther          II. Honore de Balzac 
C. Lost Illusions                             III. Goethe
 D. Epitaph of a Small Winner    IV. Miguel de Cervantes 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A ‐ I, B ‐ III, C ‐ II, D ‐ IV 
 2. A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ III, D ‐ IV 
 3. A ‐ IV, B ‐ III, C ‐ II, D ‐ I 
4. A ‐ III, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ II 
 Correct Answer :‐ A ‐ IV, B ‐ III, C ‐ II, D ‐ I
Exp- Don Quixote, Spanish in full, Part 1 El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (“The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha”) and Part 2 Segunda parte del ingenioso caballero don Quijote de la Mancha (“Second Part of the Ingenious Knight Don Quixote of La Mancha”), novel published in two parts (part 1, 1605, and part 2, 1615) by Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes, one of the most widely read classics of Western literature. Originally conceived as a parody of the chivalric romances that had long been in literary vogue, it describes realistically what befalls an aging knight who, his head bemused by reading such romances, sets out on his old horse Rocinante, with his pragmatic squire, Sancho Panza, to seek adventure. Widely and immediately translated (first English translation 1612), the novel was a great and continuing success and is considered a prototype of the modern novel.
The Sorrows of Young Werther (German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is a 1774 epistolary novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, which appeared as a revised edition in 1787. .
Illusions perdues — in English, Lost Illusions — is a serial novel written by the French writer Honoré de Balzac between 1837 and 1843. It consists of three parts, starting in provincial France, thereafter moving to Paris, and finally returning to the provinces. 
The Posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas (Portuguese: Memorias Posthumas de Braz Cubas, modern spelling Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas), also translated as Epitaph of a Small Winner, is a novel by the Brazilian writer Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (born in Rio de Janeiro City, then Imperial Capital of Brazil).
Published in 1881, the novel has a unique style of short, erratic chapters shifting in tone and style. Instead of the clear and logical construction of a normal nineteenth-century realist novel, the novel makes use of surreal devices of metaphor and playful narrative construction. It is considered the first novel of the realist movement in Brazil.
94.Charles Lamb used the pseudonym Elia for writing in which of the following periodicals? 
1. London Magazine 
 2. The Edinburg Review 
3. The Quarterly Review 
4. Athenaeum 
 Correct Answer :‐ London Magazine
Exp- Lamb's greatest achievements were his remarkable letters and the essays that he wrote under the pseudonym Elia for London Magazine, which was founded in 1820.
95.In “Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown” Virginia Woolf:
1. responds to E.M Forster’s remarks on character in fiction.
2. criticises book buying preferences of the educated English class. 
3. analyses the state of modern fiction by contrasting two generations of writers. 
4. presents modernity as a stable and coherent project uniting all artists.
Correct Answer :‐ analyses the state of modern fiction by contrasting two generations of writers.
Exp- Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown is an essay by Virginia Woolf published in 1924 which explores modernity.
The writer Arnold Bennett had written a review of Woolf's Jacob's Room (1922) in Cassell's Weekly in March 1923, which provoked Woolf to rebut it. She recorded in her diary in June that Bennett accused her of writing about characters that couldn't survive. Her response was published in the United States in Nation and Athenaeum in December as Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown. The response encouraged her to develop her ideas of cultural relativism further. Woolf addresses what she sees as the arrival of modernism, with the much cited phrase "that in or about December, 1910, human character changed", referring to Roger Fry's exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists. She argued that this in turn led to a change in human relations, and thence to change in "religion, conduct, politics, and literature". She envisaged modernism as inherently unstable, a society and culture in flux. She develops her argument through the examination of two generations of writers. Mr. Bennett was a critic of not just Woolf, but modern writers in general. In particular, Bennett challenged modern writers' depiction of "reality".
Woolf throws out a challenge to Bennett:
"Mr. Bennett says that it is only if the characters are real that the novel has any chance of surviving. Otherwise, die it must. But, I ask myself, what is reality? And who are the judges of reality?"

96.In “Politics and the English Language” which two of the following ‘tricks’ are mentioned by George Orwell as ‘bad habits’ of English use? 
A. obsolete words
 B. pretentious diction 
C. dying metaphors
 D. false modifiers
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
3. B and D only 
 4. C and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ B and C only
Exp- "Politics and the English Language" (1946) is an essay by George Orwell that criticised the "ugly and inaccurate" written English of his time and examines the connection between political orthodoxies and the debasement of language.
The essay focuses on political language, which, according to Orwell, "is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind". Orwell believed that the language used was necessarily vague or meaningless because it was intended to hide the truth rather than express it. This unclear prose was a "contagion" which had spread to those who did not intend to hide the truth, and it concealed a writer's thoughts from himself and others. Orwell encourages concreteness and clarity instead of vagueness, and individuality over political conformity.
suggested six rules which, he claimed, would prevent many of these faults, although "one could keep all of them and still write bad English".
Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. (Examples that Orwell gave included "ring the changes", "Achilles' heel", "swan song", and "hotbed". He described such phrases as "dying metaphors" and argued that they were used without knowing what was truly being said. Furthermore, he said that using metaphors of this kind made the original meaning of the phrases meaningless because those who used them did not know their original meaning. He wrote that "some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact".)
Never use a long word where a short one will do.
If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
97.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                                             List II
 (Essay)                                                                                       (Essayist)
 A. “The Tory Fox‐Hunter”                                                   I. Francis Bacon 
B. “What I Believe”                                                              II. Joseph Addison 
 C. “The Death of the Moth”                                             III. E.M.Forster
 D. “Of Ambition”                                                                IV. Virginia Woolf
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A ‐I , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐II 
2. A ‐III , B ‐IV , C ‐II , D ‐I 
3. A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐I 
 4. A ‐IV , B ‐I , C ‐II , D ‐III 
Correct Answer :‐ A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐I
Exp-"What I Believe" is the title of an essay espousing humanism by E. M. Forster (1938). E. M. Forster says that he does not believe in creeds; but there are so many around that one has to formulate a creed of one’s own in self-defense. Three values are important to Forster: tolerance, good temper and sympathy.
The Death of the Moth and Other Essays
 By Virginia Woolf a highly acclaimed collection of twenty-eight essays, sketches, and short stories presenting nearly every facet of the author's work. "Up to the author's highest standard in a literary form that was most congenial to her" (Times Literary Supplement (London)). "Exquisitely written" (New Yorker); "The riches of this book are overwhelming" (Christian Science Monitor). Editorial Note by Leonard Woolf.
The essay “Of Ambition” can be used as evidence to prove the worldly wisdom of Sir Francis Bacon. It is full of advice; it covers every profession and department of Bacon’s era. The author has advised every person either he is a king, prince or a common man. The essay is less about ambitions but more about ambitious persons. 
“The Tory Fox‐Hunter”  is by an essay by Joseph Addison.
98.Arrange the following characters in their chronological sequence of appearance:
 A. Mirabell
 B. Shylock 
C. Jimmy Porter
 D. Sir Epicure Mammon 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
 1. D, B, A, C 
 2. B, D, A, C 
 3. D, B, C, A 
4. B, D, C, A
Correct Answer :‐ D, B, A, C 
Exp- Sir Epicure Mammon
Epicure Mammon's name means a person who is devoted to sensory enjoyment and material wealth, and he is perhaps the play's biggest con. He is also the greediest gull of the lot. Constantly comparing himself and the alchemist's work with classical or antique riches, he is obsessed with food, sex, and the idea of getting his riches turned into gold by the Philosopher's Stone. His lust is the reason given by the conmen for the explosion that destroys the (non-existent) furnace and vanquishes his hopes of getting rich.
The Alchemist is one of Ben Jonson's four great comedies. The earliest recorded performance of the play occurred in Oxford in 1610. It was also entered into the Stationers' Register in this year, though it might have been written and performed earlier than this date. Critics talk of the play as being written and performed in 1610. It was first printed in quarto in 1612, and it was included
Shylock is a fictional character in William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice (c. 1600). A Venetian Jewish moneylender, Shylock is the play's principal antagonist. His defeat and conversion to Christianity form the climax of the story. in the folio of Jonson's works in 1616.
The Way of the World is a play written by the English playwright William Congreve. It premiered in early March 1700 in the theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields in London. It is widely regarded as one of the best Restoration comedies and is still occasionally performed. Initially, however, the play struck many audience members as continuing the immorality of the previous decades, and was not well received.
The play is based on the two lovers Mirabell and Millamant (originally played by John Verbruggen and Anne Bracegirdle). In order for them to marry and receive Millamant's full dowry, Mirabell must receive the blessing of Millamant's aunt, Lady Wishfort. Unfortunately, Lady Wishfort is a very bitter lady who despises Mirabell and wants her own nephew, Sir Wilfull, to wed Millamant. Meanwhile, Lady Wishfort, a widow, wants to marry again and has her eyes on an uncle of Mirabell's, the wealthy Sir Rowland.
Look Back in Anger (1956) is a realist play written by John Osborne. It focuses on the life and marital struggles of an intelligent and educated but disaffected young man of working-class origin, Jimmy Porter, and his equally competent yet impassive upper-middle-class wife Alison. The supporting characters include Cliff Lewis, an amiable Welsh lodger who attempts to keep the peace; and Helena Charles, Alison's snobbish friend.
99.Which two of the following concepts are deployed in the work of Frederic Jameson?
 A. Pastiche
 B. Hyperreal 
C. Schizophrenia
 D. Habitus
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
  1. A and B only  
2. C and D only 
 3. B and D only 
4. A and C only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp- Fredric Jameson (born April 14, 1934) is an American literary critic, philosopher and Marxist political theorist. He is best known for his analysis of contemporary cultural trends, particularly his analysis of postmodernity and capitalism. Jameson's best-known books include Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (1991) and The Political Unconscious (1981).
Two of Jameson's best-known claims from Postmodernism are that postmodernity is characterized by pastiche and a crisis in historicity. Jameson argued that parody (which implies a moral judgment or a comparison with societal norms) was replaced by pastiche (collage and other forms of juxtaposition without a normative grounding). Relatedly, Jameson argued that the postmodern era suffers from a crisis in historicity: "there no longer does seem to be any organic relationship between the American history we learn from schoolbooks and the lived experience of the current, multinational, high-rise, stagflated city of the newspapers and of our own everyday life".
100.Arrange the following plays in their chronological sequence:
 A. Sergeant Musgrave’s Dance
 B. The Playboy of the Western World
 C. Look Back in Anger
 D. Man and Superman Choose the correct answer from the options given below
1. D, B, A, C 
2. B, D, A, C 
3. D, B, C, A 
4. B, D, C, A 
Correct Answer :‐ D, B, A, C
Exp- Serjeant Musgrave's Dance, An Un-historical Parable  is a play by English playwright John Arden, written in 1959 and premiered at the Royal Court Theatre on October 22 of that year.
The Playboy of the Western World is a three-act play written by Irish playwright John Millington Synge and first performed at the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, on 26 January 1907. It is set in Michael James Flaherty's public house in County Mayo (on the west coast of Ireland) during the early 1900s. It tells the story of Christy Mahon, a young man running away from his farm, claiming he killed his father.
Look Back in Anger (1956) is a realist play written by John Osborne. It focuses on the life and marital struggles of an intelligent and educated but disaffected young man of working-class origin, Jimmy Porter, and his equally competent yet impassive upper-middle-class wife Alison. The supporting characters include Cliff Lewis, an amiable Welsh lodger who attempts to keep the peace; and Helena Charles, Alison's snobbish friend.
Man and Superman is a four-act drama written by George Bernard Shaw in 1903.
101.Match List I with List II 
List I                                                                  List II
 (Text)                                                                 (Author) 
A. Modernity at Large                                    I. J. Urry 
B. The Tourist Gaze                                        II. E.W.Said
 C. Culture and Imperialism                          III. C.L.R. James
 D. The Black Jacobins                                  IV. A. Appadurai
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐IV , B ‐III , C ‐II , D ‐I 
 2. A ‐III , B ‐IV , C ‐II , D ‐I  
3. A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐I 
 4. A ‐IV , B ‐I , C ‐II , D ‐III 
 Correct Answer :‐ A ‐IV , B ‐I , C ‐II , D ‐III

Exp- Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization
 By Arjun Appadurai
Offering a new framework for the cultural study of globalization, Modernity at Large shows how the imagination works as a social force in today's world, providing new resources for identity and energies for creating alternatives to the nation-state, whose era some see as coming to an end. Appadurai examines the current epoch of globalization, which is characterized by the win forces of mass migration and electronic mediation, and provides fresh ways of looking at popular consumption patters, debates about multiculturalism, and ethnic violence. He considers the way images--of lifestyles, popular culture, and self-representation--circulate internationally through the media and are often borrowed in surprising (to their originators) and inventive fashions.
The Tourist Gaze, Volume 2
John Urry
This Second Edition deepens our understanding of how the tourist gaze orders and regulates the relationship with the tourist environment, demarcating the "other" and identifying the "out-of-the-ordinary." It elucidates the relationship between tourism and embodiment and elaborates on the connections between mobility as a mark of modern and postmodern experience and the attraction of tourism as a lifestyle choice.
The result is a book that builds on the proven strengths of the First Edition and revitalizes the argument to address the needs of researchers and students in the new century.
Culture and Imperialism (1993), by Edward Said, is a collection of thematically related essays that trace the connection between imperialism and culture throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. The essays expand the arguments of Orientalism to describe general patterns of relation, between the modern metropolitan Western world and their overseas colonial territories."
The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution is a 1938 book by Trinidadian historian C. L. R. James, a history of the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804. He went to Paris to research this work, where he met Haitian military historian Alfred Auguste Nemours. James's text places the revolution in the context of the French Revolution, and focuses on the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture, who was born a slave but rose to prominence espousing the French Revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality. These ideals, which many French revolutionaries did not maintain consistently with regard to the black humanity of their colonial possessions, were embraced, according to James, with a greater purity by the persecuted blacks of Haiti; such ideals "meant far more to them than to any Frenchman."
James examines the brutal conditions of slavery as well as the social and political status of the slave-owners, poor or "small" whites, and "free" blacks and mulattoes leading up to the Revolution. The work explores the dynamics of the Caribbean economy and the European feudal system during the era before the Haitian Revolution, and places each revolution in comparative historical and economic perspective.
102.What might the speaker mean when he addresses ‘Time’ in a Shakespearean sonnet and declares that “I will be true, despite thy scythe and thee ”?
 A. Time preserves human life. 
B. With time comes change.
 C. Time creates opportunities.
 D. Time removes human life. 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and B only 
 2. C and D only 
3. B and D only 
4. A and C only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp-Sonnet 123 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. Shakespeare addresses the ideas of change and growth in one's lifetime by metaphorically standing up against time Father Time. The major theme is that years continue to pass and the narrator is naturally getting older with each passing year, but he does not feel that it is necessary for his character to change accordingly. There are changes in the physical world that may happen within one's lifetime (pyramids), but that is not substantial on a personal level. Even so, we ought to respect what was done before us; however, that does not mean we have to revere it and at the same time an individual's pride would persuade one to think of these ideas as one's own, rather than something merely copied from the past (lines 5-8). There is little point in worrying about what has already happened, or for that matter worrying about what is happening now, but one should just live one's life for what it is. Copying down events and comparing written records with mental recollection is pointless because it wastes time in the present to do so, and time is continually moving (lines 9-12). Finally, the narrator resolves that no matter what happens in life (as new events to come are "done" by Time) he will stick to his own constitution and be true to himself regardless of what any consequences may be.
There are numerous other takes on the sonnet ranging from the poem's use of time (or lack thereof) as a metaphor for the tyranny of post-modernist working life as well as the potential sociopolitical themes apparent in the poem's thematic fear of change (conservatism).
This sonnet is one of the few pieces in Shakespeare that references ideas such as time, change, and death without the use of direct biblical or literary allusion.


103.Which two of the following stage directions are from Harold Pinter’s The Birthday Party?
 A. The living‐room of a house on a seaside town.
 B. A garbage pail on the ground next to the porch steps.
 C. A light shows from upstairs bedroom, lower floor windows being dark. 
D. He hangs the drum around his neck, taps it gently with the sticks, then marches round the table, beating it regularly. Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and D only 
2. C and D only 
 3. B abd C only 
 4. A and C only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and D only
Exp-The Birthday Party (1957) is the first full-length play by Harold Pinter, first published in London by Encore Publishing in 1959.
After Meg gives Stanley his toy drum, he hangs it around his neck and parades around the table. Pinter uses this scene to develop Stanley’s character, to reveal how he is both a conformist and a rebel. As he playfully taps a beat on the drum while circling the table and then begins to bang it “as if he were possessed,” Pinter uses very specific stage directions so that the action of the play, which was once stagnant, suddenly explodes. This creates tension, drama and unease. So much of the play has been unspoken and tense, and now the violence is made manifest. The same thing happens with the stage directions at the end of Act II. By using very few stage directions and then using specific ones, Pinter makes sure that his dramatic moments serve as a pay-off to the lingering tension of the play.
104.Arrange the following lines of poetry in their chronological sequence:
 A. “An aged man is but a paltry thing.” 
B. “The world is too much with us.” 
C. “Daddy, I have had to kill you.”
 D. “After great pain, a formal feeling comes ‐”
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below
1. B, D, A, C 
2. D, B, A, C 
3. D, B, C, A 
 4. B, D, C, A 
Correct Answer :‐ B, D, A, C
Exp-
"The World Is Too Much with Us" is a sonnet by the English Romantic poet William Wordsworth. In it, Wordsworth criticises the world of the First Industrial Revolution for being absorbed in materialism and distancing itself from nature. Composed circa 1802, the poem was first published in Poems, in Two Volumes (1807). Like most Italian sonnets, its 14 lines are written in iambic pentameter.
"After great pain, a formal feeling comes" is a short poem on the subject of pain, one of many Emily Dickinson wrote in 1862, an important year for the prolific, reclusive poet.
“An aged man is but a paltry thing.”  is a line from the poem
"Sailing to Byzantium" is a poem by William Butler Yeats, first published in the 1928 collection The Tower. It comprises four stanzas in ottava rima, each made up of eight lines of iambic pentameter. It uses a journey to Byzantium (Constantinople) as a metaphor for a spiritual journey. Yeats explores his thoughts and musings on how immortality, art, and the human spirit may converge. Through the use of various poetic techniques, Yeats's "Sailing to Byzantium" describes the metaphorical journey of a man pursuing his own vision of eternal life as well as his conception of paradise.
"Daddy" is a poem written by American Confessional poet Sylvia Plath. The poem was written on October 12, 1962, four months before her death and one month after her separation from Ted Hughes. It was published posthumously in Ariel during 1965 alongside many other of her poems leading up to her death such as "Tulips” and "Lady Lazarus."
"Daddy" employs controversial metaphors of the Holocaust to explain Plath's complex relationship with her father, Otto Plath, who died shortly after her eighth birthday as a result of undiagnosed diabetes. The poem itself is cryptic, a widely anthologized poem in American literature, and its implications, as well as thematic concerns, have been reviewed academically, with many differing conclusions.

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Arrange the following words of Chomsky in chronological order in which they appeared: (i) Current issues in Linguistic Theory (ii) Syntactic...