Sunday, March 27, 2022

English Literature NET Paper 2021 June Second Shift solved by Dr Mukesh Pareek

UGC NET 2021 English Shift 2
A Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
 [T]he aim of all the same: to live more at leisure and at one’s ease. But people do not always look for the right way. Often they think they have left business, and they have only changed it. There is scarcely less trouble in governing a family than in governing an entire state: whatever the mind is wrapped up in it, it is all wrapped up in it, and domestic occupations are no less importunate for being less important. Furthermore, by getting rid of the court and the marketplace we do not get rid of the principal worries of our life....Ambition, avarice, irresolution, fear and lust do not leave us when we change our country....They often follow us even into the cloisters and schools of philosophy. Neither deserts, nor rocky caves, nor hair shirts, nor fastings will free us of them. ‐‐ Michel de Montaigne,
 “Of solitude”
1. Which of the following best captures the theme of the passage?
1. The court and the marketplace must be got rid of. 
 2. Try what one may, no one can ever be at ease. 
 3. Ruling a state is easier than managing a family. 
 4. Solitude is one condition of peace with one self. 
 Correct Answer :‐ 4
Exp-Solitude is one condition of peace with one self.The author has given the whole passage as an example of how we don’t attain the right peace and solitude.
2.The mistake human beings make is to:
 1. abjure solitude when desirable. 
 2. abstain from the love of leisure. 
3. exaggerate the value of family.
 4. abstain from restraining the mind. 
 Correct Answer :‐ 4
Exp- abstain from restraining the mind.
3.The “principal worries of our life” follow us if we:
 A. detach our self from family life.
 B. are deep into buying and selling. 
 C. mentally abstain from hustle and bustle.
 D. are in to schools of philosophy.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. B and D only 
 2. A and C only 
 3. C and D only 
 4. B and C only 
 Correct Answer :‐ B and D only
Exp-It is very clear by reading the passage that the essayist is talking about our mental conditioning that does not make us leave the world even though we leave it literarlly because subconsciously ,”the world is too much with us”.

Read the following poem and answer the questions that follow: 
A Prayer For Old Age
GOD guard me from those thoughts men think
In the mind alone;
He that sings a lasting song
Thinks in a marrow-bone;
From all that makes a wise old man
That can be praised of all;
O what am I that I should not seem
For the song's sake a fool?
I pray — for word is out
And prayer comes round again —
That I may seem, though I die old,
A foolish, passionate man.

‐ W.B.Yeats 
4.Thoughts true for all time are:
1. born of God’s care. 
 2. for all human hearts. 
 3. imbued with logic of mind. 
 4. felt deep inside the self. 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- This romantic poem emphasizes intuition over logic, the heart over the mind. As a great poet, Yeats believes life is powered by passion. He lives not for the praise of others, but for singing his lasting song. He chooses to be a passionate man rather than a reasonable man. In an age when the world became increasingly complex and the individual became easily lost, one must seek some eternal values that can guide his entire life. Poetry should create a passion for life that, no matter how foolish it may appear to others, provides meaning to your life.
5.In the second stanza the poet thinks of: 
1. what all makes a wise old man. 
2. what all earns all others’ praise. 
3. what he does not want to appear. 
 4. what he thinks he is, a fool. 
 Correct Answer :‐ 1
Exp- As a great poet, Yeats believes life is powered by passion. He lives not for the praise of others, but for singing his lasting song. He chooses to be a passionate man rather than a reasonable man.

6.Which one of the following best captures what we infer about the poet?
1. He believes in the efficacy of prayer. 
 2. He is an old man wise as old are. 
 3. He is old but happy in not being wise. 
 4. He is a foolish young man who thinks wisely.
 Correct Answer :‐ 3.
Exp- He is old but happy in not being wise.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow: The earth was made for Dombey and Son to trade in, and the sun and moon were made to give them light. Rivers and seas were formed to float their ships; rainbows gave them promise of fair weather; winds blew for or against their enterprises; stars and planets circled in their orbits, to preserve inviolate a system of which they were the centre. Common abbreviations took new meanings in his eyes, and had sole reference to them: A. D. had no concern with anno Domini, but stood for anno Dombey—and Son. ‐ Charles Dickens, Dombey and Son 
7.The whole description is an example of: 
1. aporia. 
 2. image. 
 3. analogy. 
 4. sarcasm. 
 Correct Answer :‐ Sarcasm
8.What is the ‘system’ of which Dombey and Son were the centre?
1. The British political system 
 2. The country’s commerce 
 3. The family business 
 4. The workings of nature 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp-Sarcastically the author has called the material world a “system” and how it has influenced the people around the rich protagonists .
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow: Is man no more than this? Consider him well. Thou ow'st the worm no silk, the beast no hide, the sheep no wool, the cat no perfume. ‐‐‐ Ha! here's three on's are sophisticated. Thou art the thing itself; unaccommodated man is no more than such a poor, bare, forked animal as thou art.                                                             ‐ Shakespeare, King Lear 
9.‘Is man no more than this?’ means:
1. Man is far more than what he seems to be. 
 2. Man is not as well endowed as some other animals. 
 3. Accomodated man is well endowed. 
4. As an animal, man is a superior animal. 
 Correct Answer :‐ Man is far more than what he seems to be.
Exp- Lear thinks that the way to get at man’s essence is to reduce him to some kind of lowest common denominator, in particular to strip away his clothing, symbolic of all the additions with which civilization tries to raise human beings above the level of beasts. Having undergone a profoundly disillusioning experience with his cruel daughters, Lear has learned to see through the appearances on which human beings conventionally pride themselves. Accordingly, he starts to divest himself of his clothing, to cast aside the customary trappings of his kingly status and thereby bring himself in line with the diminished image of humanity he sees embodied in Poor Tom. In an eerie anticipation of Rousseau, Lear believes that to uncover human nature, one has to go back to man’s origins; one arrives at a definition of man by finding the bare minimum one can still call human, and in that state a man is virtually indistinguishable from a beast.

10.Which one of the following best captures what Shakespeare means? 
 1. Man just uses what animals possess. 
 2. Animals’ attributes are external. 
3. Man can accommodate same properties. 
 4. Animals unlike man are more complex. 
 Correct Answer :‐ Man just uses what animals possess.
Exp- Witnessing the powerful forces of the natural world, Lear comes to understand that he, like the rest of humankind, is insignificant in the world. This realization proves much more important than the realization of his loss of political control, as it compels him to re-prioritize his values and become humble and caring.

11.Who among the following was of the view that poetry was only an imitation of an imitation and therefore trivial?
1. Plato 
2. Xenocrates 
3. Phaedo 
 4. Aristotle 
 Correct Answer :‐ Plato
Exp- According to Plato's theory of mimesis (imitation) the arts deal with illusion and they are imitation of an imitation. Thus, they are twice removed from reality. As a moralist, Plato disapproves of poetry because it is immoral, as a philosopher he disapproves of it because it is based in falsehood.

12.In “The Life of Cowley” which two of the following criticisms were made by Samuel Johnson against a group of writers he termed the ‘metaphysical poets’? 
A. They made an inappropriate combination of wit and imagination.
 B. Instead of writing poetry, they only wrote verses.
 C. They neither copied nature nor life.
 D. They never tried to be singular in their thoughts.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. B and C only 
 3. B and D only 
 4. C and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and B only
Exp-In the chapter on Abraham Cowley in his Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets (1779–81), Samuel Johnson refers to the beginning of the 17th century in which there "appeared a race of writers that may be termed the metaphysical poets". This does not necessarily imply that he intended "metaphysical"" to be used in its true sense, in that he was probably referring to a witticism of John Dryden, who said of John Donne:
He affects the metaphysics, not only in his satires, but in his amorous verses, where nature only should reign; and perplexes the minds of the fair sex with nice speculations of philosophy, when he should engage their hearts, and entertain them with the softnesses of love. In this...Mr. Cowley has copied him to a fault.
Probably the only writer before Dryden to speak of the new style of poetry was Drummond of Hawthornden, who in an undated letter from the 1630s made the charge that "some men of late, transformers of everything, consulted upon her reformation, and endeavoured to abstract her to metaphysical ideas and scholastical quiddities, denuding her of her own habits, and those ornaments with which she hath amused the world some thousand years".

13.In “The Function of Criticism at the Present Time” what is proposed by Matthew Arnold as the essence of criticism?
1. affirmation 
 2. judiciousness 
 3. disinterestedness 
 4. cohesiveness 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- The essay The Function of Criticism at the Present Time was published by Matthew Arnold in his first collection of critical writing ‘Essays in Criticism’ in 1865.  The essay deals with Arnold’s interpretation of criticism and his critique of writers who write politically or religiously biased literature thus narrowing its scope.
Arnold suggests that the function of criticism at the present time is to make itself inherently valuable in itself. Whether the value springs from bringing joy to the writer or from making sure that the best ideas reach society are irrespective. Arnold sees that real criticism is essentially the exercise of the quality of curiosity. Curiosity is the disinterested desire for knowledge in all fields. It is an instinct that urges man to seek knowledge for the sake of knowledge. The creative activity must be preceded by criticism. Criticism paves the way for creative activity. Disinterestedness: Arnold sees that the indispensable rule of English criticism is disinterestedness or objectivity. It also means independence of judgement. How can criticism show disinterestedness? Criticism should follow the law of its own nature which is freedom. Criticism should be a free activity which is not subject to any external influence. Criticism should refuse to submit to political or practical consideration. Criticism should serve nothing but itself. 
14.How does T.S.Eliot sum up the peculiar quality of Marvell’s “ Horatian Ode”?
1. ‘telescoping of images and multiplied associations’ 
2. ‘a tough reasonableness beneath a slight lyric grace’ 
 3. ‘a contrast of ideas, different in degree but the same in principle’ 
 4. ‘heterogeneity of materials compelled into unity’
Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- T.S. Eliot describes wit simply as “a tough reasonabless beneath the slight lyric grace” when he talks about Horation Ode by Marwell.Let me quote the whole passage from the essay----
“Out of that high style developed from Marlowe through Jonson (for Shakespeare does not lend himself to these genealogies) the seventeenth century separated two qualities: wit and magniloquence. Neither is as simple or as apprehensible as its name seems to imply, and the two are not in practice antithetical; both are conscious and cultivated, and the mind which cultivates one may cultivate the other. The actual poetry, of Marvell, of Cowley, of Milton, and of others, is a blend in varying proportions. And we must be on guard not to employ the terms with too wide a comprehension; for like the other fluid terms with which literary criticism deals, the meaning alters with the age, and for precision we must rely to some degree upon the literacy and good taste of the reader. The wit of the Caroline poets is not the wit of Shakespeare, and it is not the wit of Dryden, the great master of contempt, or of Pope, the great master of hatred, or of Swift, the great master of disgust. What is meant is some quality which is common to the songs in Comus and Cowley's "Anacreontics" and Marvell's "Horatian Ode." It is more than a technical accomplish meet, or the vocabulary and syntax of an epoch; it is, what we have designated tentatively as wit, a tough reasonableness beneath the slight Iyric grace. You cannot find it in Shelley or Keats or Wordsworth; you cannot find more than an echo of it in Landor; still less in Tennyson or Browning; and among contemporaries Mr. Yeats is an Irishman and Mr. Hardy is a modern Englishman--that is to say, Mr. Hardy is without it and Mr. Yeats is outside of the tradition altogether. On the other hand, as it certainly exists in Lafontaine, there is a large part of it in Gautier. And of the magniloquence, the deliberate exploitation of the possibilities of magnificence in language which Milton used and abused, there is also use and even abuse in the poetry of Baudelaire.

15.In his recasting the canon of English poetry in New Bearings in English Poetry which of the following pairs was downgraded by F.R.Leavis ? 
1. Browning and Arnold 
 2. Tennyson and Swinburne 
3. Pound and Hopkins 
 4. Milton and Shelley 
Correct Answer :‐ 1
Exp- New Bearings in English Poetry: A Study of the Contemporary Situation   by
Frank Raymond Leavis
"F.R. Leavis believed passionately in the importance of 'living literature', of relating poetry to contemporary human experience. He interpreted T.S. Eliot's poetic impact in the 1920s as the start of a new age in which the 'other-worldly' Romantic conventions of Victorian poetry wewre collapsing. But recognition of such a significant moment in literary history is not Leavis's sole achievement in 'New bearings in English poetry'. His appraisal of Eliot's strong intelligence, the subtlety and sensibility of Ezra Pound and Hopkins's technical innovation, still serves as an informative and cogently written introduction to these poets." In New Bearings in English Poetry (1932) he attacked English late Victorian poetry and proclaimed the importance of the work of T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Gerard Manley Hopkins, emphasizing wit and the play of intellect rather than late-Romantic sensuousness.
16.Words with the same pronunciation and different meanings are: 
 1. homonyms. 
 2. homophones. 
 3. homologues. 
 4. homografts. 
Correct Answer :‐ 1
Exp- In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, according to this definition, the words row (propel with oars) and row (a linear arrangement) are homonyms, as are the words see (vision) and sea (body of water).
17.According to Ferdinand de Saussure, language is:
 A. an interlocking structure.
 B. a system of constant change.
 C. a system of signs.
 D. a self‐standing formation.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. A and C only 
3. B and D only 
 4. C and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 18.The set of inflected forms taken by a single word is: 
1. phoneme. 
 2. morpheme. 
3. sememe. 
 4. lexeme. 
 Correct Answer :‐ phoneme. 

19.Which pair of linguists in the following list is associated with ‘speech acts’? 
1. Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker 
2. J.L.Austin and John Searle 
3. Paul Grice and Michael Devitt 
 4. Franz Boas and Rudolf Camap
Correct Answer :‐ Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker
20.Usage in “You have hissed the mystery lectures.” is an example of: 
1. error of lexical choice. 
 2. inadvertent mistake. 
 3. spoonerism. 
4. metathesis. 
Correct Answer :‐ error of lexical choice. 
21.Who wrote the short story, “The Voter”?
1. Ngugi wa Thiong’o 
2. Wole Soyinka 
 3. Chinua Achebe 
4. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie 
 Correct Answer :‐ Ngugi wa Thiong’o
22.Which character in Hamlet utters the line: “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark”?
1. Marcellus 
2. Bernardo 
 3. Ghost 
 4. Horatio 
 Correct Answer :‐ Marcellus 
23.Who wrote the essay “My First Acquaintance with Poets”?
1. Charles Lamb 
2. William Hazlitt 
3. Thomas De Quincey 
 4. John Ruskin 
 Correct Answer :‐ Charles Lamb 
24. Who wrote a postmodern reworking of Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations without altering the original title?
1. Shirley Jackson 
 2. Kathy Acker 
3. Angela Carter 
 4. Peter Carey 
 Correct Answer :‐ Shirley Jackson 
25. Who, in “The World as India,” argues that English can be the only common “unifying language” of India? 
1. Susan Sontag 
 2. Noam Chomsky 
3. Anthony Burgess 
 4. C. K. Ogden 
 Correct Answer :‐ Susan Sontag 
Exp- The World as India is a lecture Susan Sontag delivered on Literary Translation.Let me quote a passage from this long lecture.
English has become the common language that unifies linguistic disparities. India has sixteen “official languages” (actually, many more vernacular languages are spoken), and there is no way that India, given its present composition and diversity, which includes 180 million Muslims, is ever going to agree to, say, the principal language, Hindi, becoming the national language. The language that could be a national language would precisely not be a native one but the language of the conqueror, of the colonial era. Just because it is alien, foreign, it can become the unifying language of a permanently diverse people: the only language that all Indians might have in common not only is, it has to be, English.

26. In which book of Paradise Lost does Milton refer to “Agra and Lahore of Great Mogul”? 
1. Book III 
 2. Book IV 
 3. Book VII 
 4. Book XI 
 Correct Answer :‐ 4
Exp- Milton placed Lahore among the cities which met the eyes of a repentant Adam from the hill of Paradise:-
— from the destined walls of Cambala, seat of Cathian can,
And Samarchand by Oxus, Temir’s throne
To Paquin of Sinaean Kings; and thence
To Agra and Lahore of Great Mogul —
To seat of Mightiest Empires.
(Paradise Lost Bk. xi-386-392)
In his 1667 epic poem, Paradise Lost, writer John Milton had referred to Lahore as one of the few cities that the archangel Michael showed to Adam before his expulsion from Paradise as a great example of God’s future creations: “To show him all Earth’s kingdoms and their glory… city of old or modern fame… to Agra and Lahore of great Mogul”. While these lines are from a Christian epic, the name of Lahore itself is supposed to have derived from its old name Lava, after the son of Lord Ram, who, according to myth, founded the city.

27. Which of the following narrative cycles is referred to in Michel Foucault’ s “What is an Author?”? 
1. The Canterbury Tales 
2. The Thousand and One Nights 
3. The Decameron 
 4. Tuti Namah 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- Foucault in his famous essay What is an Author has used  a non-Western text, The Arabian Nights, where Scheherazade's storytelling night after night kept her from being killed.

28. Who is the author of “The Typology of Detective Fiction”? 
1. G. K. Chesterton 
 2. Umberto Eco 
 3. Tzvetan Todorov 
 4. Vladimir Propp 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- In The Typology of Detective Fiction, Tzvetan Todorov deals with the way the genre of detective fiction works within the parameters of certain rules. Knowing a genre is often one of the best means to understand a piece of work, but often great works of literature surpasses the genre and achieves greater heights.

29.Who among the following says that ideology is “a representation of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence”? 
 1. Herbert Marcuse 
 2. Fredric Jameson 
 3. Terry Eagleton 
 4. Louis Althusser 
 Correct Answer :‐ Herbert Marcuse 
Exp-Althusser's first premise or thesis is that "Ideology is a 'representation' of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real conditions of existence." He begins his explanation of this pronouncement by looking at why people need this imaginary relation to real conditions of existence. 

30. Which two among the following condemned the transportation of 50000 slaves into England in 1771?
 A. Samuel Johnson
 B. Alexander Pope 
C. Horace Walpole 
D. Thomas Gray
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. B and D only 
 3. B and C only 
 4. A and C only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and C only 
Exp- Youngest son of Sir Robert Walpole. A master of the art of letter writing and a pioneer of the Gothic taste, he formed an exceptional collection at Strawberry Hill, his 'little Gothic castle' in Twickenham. His works include the first history of English art, Anecdotes of Painting, 1762, and the Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto, 1764. He succeeded in 1791 as 4th Earl of Orford.
Walpole did not speak out against the trade but he was one of the first to question its morality. In a letter of 1750 he described a debate in Parliament that had focused upon the slave trade. Those attending heard that 64 000 Africans were sold in the English colonies alone every year. 'It chills the blood', Walpole wrote.
Britannia Encyclopaedia says  that Doctor Johnson  frequently expressed minority or unpopular views, such as his principled stands against slavery, colonialism, and mistreatment of indigenous peoples. He also urged better treatment of prisoners of war, prostitutes, and the poor generally, and he once tried to save a convicted forger from the gallows.

31. Which two are the works of Ted Hughes?
 A. Wildtrack 
B. Wodwo 
 C. Lupercal
 D. Jack Straw’s Castle
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. A and C only 
 3. B and C only 
 4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- 1960 Lupercal
1967 Wodwo
Lupercal, Ted Hughes's second book, contains many of the unsettling and vivid animal poems for which Hughes is so rightly celebrated, including 'The Bull Moses', 'Hawk Roosting' and 'Pike'.
"Wodwo is Ted Hughes' first book for adults since Lupercal in 1960. It consists principally of the poems he has written in the years since then, but it also contains five stories and one radio play." A "wodwo" is a "wild man," a creature somewhere between elves and fairies and actual humans. One way to understand the wodwo is to think of it as a representation of primal masculinity, or "maleness" in a state before civilization.

32.Which two of the following are works by I. A. Richards? 
A. Concepts of Criticism
 B. Science and Poetry
 C. The Philosophy of Rhetoric 
D. English Literature in Our Time and the University
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
3. A and D only 
4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- Poetries and Sciences is by 
I. A. Richards
Richards here offers anew the 1935 edition of his work (then entitled Science and Poetry) with commentary that reveals not only the development of his own criticism but also the ways in which the relationship between the two disciplines has evolved. He has also written a new essay entitled “Re-Orientation” and has included, as another kind of commentary on the basic text, his essay “How Does a Poem Know When It Is Finished?”
The Philosophy of Rhetoric is by
I. A. Richards 
Our communication is limitedby misunderstanding. Rhetoric, as Professor Richards defines it, is the study of misunderstanding and its remedies. The conventional rules of the old rhetoric and the formulations of scientific language have narrow application to conversational speech; Professor Richard's definition of rhetoric is based on a practical question: how do words work in discourse? To answer this question, he examines the interaction of words with each other and with their contexts, showing how a continual synthesis of meaning, or "principle of metaphor," gives life to discussion. It is through comprehension of the way meaning changes in discourse that we can better control and animate our use of words, and so decrease misunderstanding.

33.Which two of the following essays form part of Mikhail Bakhtin’s The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays? 
A. “From the History of Novelistic Discourse”
 B. “Discourse in the Novel”
 C. “Romance and Novel”
 D. “Forms of Time and the Chronotope in the Novel”
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. B and C only 
3. A and D only 
4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- The Dialogic Imagination is a book on the nature and development of novelistic prose, comprising four essays by the twentieth century Russian philosopher and literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin. The essays are: "Epic and Novel" (1941); "From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse" (1940); "Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel" (1937–38); "Discourse in the Novel" (1934).

34.Which two of the following poems are by Judith Wright? 
A. “Meditation on a Bone”
 B. “Imperial Adam”
 C. “Woman to Man”
 D. “The Old Prison”
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
 1. A and B only 
 2. C and D only 
3. B and D only 
4. A and C only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
35. Which two of the following are the earliest colonial publishing initiatives that apply to India? 
A. Andrew Lang Colonial Book Series
 B. Murray Colonial and Home Library Series 
 C. Colonial Library Series by Macmillan
 D. Colonial Library Series by Chatto & Windus
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. A and C only 
 3. B and C only 
 4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- The Langs' Fairy Books are a series of 25 collections of true and fictional stories for children published between 1889 and 1913 by Andrew Lang and his wife, Leonora Blanche Alleyne. The best known books of the series are the 12 collections of fairy tales also known as Andrew Lang's "Coloured" Fairy Books or Andrew Lang's Fairy Books of Many Colors. In all, the volumes feature 798 stories, besides the 153 poems in The Blue Poetry Book.
The Home and Colonial Library was a series of works published in London from 1843 to 1849, comprising 49 titles, by John Murray III. He founded it, as a series of cheap reprints, original works and translations, slanted towards travel literature in the broad sense, in the year of death of his father, John Murray II.Its first series is  on Indian Customs and Manners.
Series Note: Volumes in the Macmillan's Colonial Library are typically marked “Intended for Circulation only in India and the British Colonies.”
Chatto & Windus was an independent book publishing company in London, founded in the Victorian era. It was purchased by Random House in 1987.

36. Which two of the following conform to the documentation style prescribed by the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook?
 A. Puig, Manuel. Kiss of the Spider Woman, translated by Thomas Colchie, Vintage Books, 1991.
 B. Kincaid, Jamaica. “In History.” Callaloo, vol. 24, no. 2, Spring 2001, pp. 620‐26.
 C. Nunberg, Geoffrey, editor. The Future of the Book. U of California P, 1996.
 D. Wellek, Rene. A History of Modern Criticism, 1750‐1950, Yale UP, 1986. 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: [Question ID = 10954][Question Description = S4_qSNz_PG_ENG_Q36] 
1. A and B only 
 2. A and C only 
3. B and C only 
 4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- MLA citing format 
MLA Magazine & Newspaper Articles Format:
Author's last name, first name. "Article title." Periodical title Volume # Date: inclusive pages.

Note: If an edition is named on the masthead, add a comma after the date and specify the edition.Examples:
Hall, Trish. "IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why." New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1+.
 MLA Format Examples for Books
Author's last name, first name. Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company, publication date.Examples:
Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1974.
37.Which two of the following are fallacious evaluations of poetry according to Matthew Arnold’s “The Study of Poetry”? 
A. contextual estimate
 B. personal estimate
 C. comparative estimate
 D. historic estimate
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. B and C only 
 3. C and D only 
 4. B and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ 4
Exp- While judging the true standard of poetry, in his famous essay Mathew Arnold says that one should be careful to avoid the historical and personal estimates and cultivate only the ‘real’ estimate. The personal estimate means giving importance to a poet because of personal likings and affinities. Arnold says that the personal estimate should be eschewed because it will lead to wrong judgements. The historical estimate is judging a poet from the point of view of his importance in the course of literary history. According to Arnold this is also not a true judgement of poet. Its historical importance may make us rate the work as higher than it really deserves. Rather the reader should try to form a real estimate of a work. One should learn to distinguish a true classic from a dubious or false classic. A dubious classic must be sifted; a false classic must be exploded but a real classic must be enjoyed deeply. A classic, says Arnold, is that work which belongs to the class of the very best
38.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                       List II
 Plays                                                                      Playwrights 
A. Madmen and Specialists                               I. Dennis Scott 
B. The Sea at Dauphin                                       II. Wole Soyinka 
C. The Trial of Dedan Kimathi                         III. Derek Walcott
 D. An Echo in the Bone                                    IV. Ngugi wa Thiong’o 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐III , B ‐IV , C ‐II , D ‐I 
2. A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐I , D ‐IV 
 3. A ‐III , B ‐I , C ‐IV , D ‐II 
 4. A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐ I 
 Correct Answer :‐ A ‐III , B ‐IV , C ‐II , D ‐I 
Exp- Madmen and Specialists is a play by Wole Soyinka, conceived in 1970 during his imprisonment in the Nigerian Civil War. The play, Soyinka's eighth, has close links to the Theatre of the Absurd. Abiola Irele (in the Lagos Sunday Times) called it "a nightmarish image of our collective life as it appears to a detached and reflective consciousness". It was published in London 1971 by Methuen and in New York in 1972 by Hill & Wang.
Madmen and Specialists is considered Soyinka's most pessimistic play, dealing with "man's inhumanity and pervasive corruption in structures of power". The plot concerns Dr. Bero, a corrupt specialist, who imprisons and torments his physician father.
Derek Walcott’s The Sea at Dauphin gives the audience a glimpse inside the rough lives of the fisherman and villagers of the West Indies. Afa is obstinate, believing himself brave for refusing to acknowledge the rough waters and deadly dangers of the sea. However, he drunkenly promised to take Hounakin, elderly and recently widowed, out in his canoe to experience the life of a fisherman. Now, in the sunrise and anticipation of the day, Afa regrets that offer. He is more concerned about his profits than the safety of his passenger--which rightly earns accusations of Afa’s greed, pride, and even cruelty from his mate Augustin. In this world where the villagers live and die by the sea, Afa is willing to risk his life to ensure his own survival. He will defy nature and God to pursue success.
Deliberately modeled on Irish writer J.M. Synge’s Riders to the Sea, Walcott’s The Sea at Dauphin is a drama of men against the power of nature. With poetic stage directions, vivid descriptions, and use of French patois dialect, The Sea at Dauphin is a postcolonial masterpiece.
The Trial of Dedan Kimathi
play by Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Mugo
The Trial Of Dedan Kimathy Is An Important African Protest Play. It Is Based On Historical Facts And Depicts How Kenya Won Its Independence Through The Sacrifices Of Heroes Like Dedan Kimathy. The Present Book Offers A Comprehensive Study Of The Play, Covering Thematic And Technical Aspects.
An Echo in the Bone is the seventh book in the Outlander series of novels by Diana Gabaldon. Centered on time travelling 20th century doctor Claire Fraser and her 18th century Scottish Highlander warrior husband Jamie Fraser, the books contain elements of historical fiction, romance, adventure and fantasy.[

39. Arrange the following journals in the chronological order of publication. A. Longman’s Magazine 
B. Cornhill Magazine
 C. Blackwood’s Magazine
 D. Bentley’s Miscellany 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below
1. C, B, A, D 
 2. C, D, B, A 
3. B, C, D, A 
 4. B, C, A, D 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- Blackwood's Magazine was a British magazine and miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980. It was founded by the publisher William Blackwood and was originally called the Edinburgh Monthly Magazine. The first number appeared in April 1817 under the editorship of Thomas Pringle and James Cleghorn. The journal was unsuccessful and Blackwood fired Pringle and Cleghorn and relaunched the journal as Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine under his own editorship. The journal eventually adopted the shorter name and from the relaunch often referred to itself as Maga. The title page bore the image of George Buchanan, a 16th-century Scottish historian, religious and political thinker.
Bentley's Miscellany was an English literary magazine started by Richard Bentley. It was published between 1836 and 1868.
The Cornhill Magazine (1860–1975) was a monthly Victorian magazine and literary journal named after the street address of the founding publisher Smith, Elder & Co. at 65 Cornhill in London. In the 1860s, under editor William Makepeace Thackeray, the paper's large circulation peaked around 110,000. Due to emerging competitors, circulation fell to 20,000 by 1870. The following year, Leslie Stephen took over as editor. When Stephen left in 1882, circulation had further fallen to 12,000. The Cornhill was purchased by John Murray in 1912, and continued to publish issues until 1975.
Longman's Magazine was first published in November 1882 by C. J. Longman, publisher of Longmans, Green & Co. of London. It superseded Fraser's Magazine (published 1830 to 1882). A total of 276 monthly issues had been published when the last number came out in October 1905.
Longman's focused on fiction, debuting work by James Payn, Margaret Oliphant, Thomas Hardy, Henry James, Edith Nesbit, Frank Anstey, Robert Louis Stevenson, H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling, Walter Besant, and others.
The magazine is closely associated with one of its editors, Andrew Lang, who contributed a column called "At the Sign of the Ship" for many years.

40. Arrange the following poems by W. B. Yeats in the chronological order of publication. 
A. “The Wild Swans at Coole”
 B. “The Second Coming”
 C. “Among School Children”
 D. “Adam’s Curse”
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. A, C, D, B 
 2. D, A, B, C 
3. C, A, B, D 
 4. C, A, D, B 
Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp-Adam's Curse is a poem written by William Butler Yeats. In the poem, Yeats describes the difficulty of creating something beautiful. The title alludes to the book of Genesis, evoking the fall of man and the separation of work and pleasure. Yeats originally included the poem in the volume In the Seven Woods, published in 1903.
"The Wild Swans at Coole" is a lyric poem by the Irish poet William Butler Yeats (1865–1939). Written between 1916 and early 1917, the poem was first published in the June 1917 issue of the Little Review, and became the title poem in the Yeats's 1917 and 1919 collections The Wild Swans at Coole.
"The Second Coming" is a poem written by Irish poet W. B. Yeats in 1919, first printed in The Dial in November 1920, and afterwards included in his 1921 collection of verses Michael Robartes and the Dancer. The poem uses Christian imagery regarding the Apocalypse and Second Coming to allegorically describe the atmosphere of post-war Europe. It is considered a major work of modernist poetry and has been reprinted in several collections, including The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry.
William Butler Yeats published "Among School Children" in his famous 1928 collection of poems, The Tower. Yeats was in his 60s at the time and, like the speaker in this poem, served as an Irish senator whose responsibilities included inspecting public schools. In the poem, the speaker's visit to one such school prompts him to reflect on old age, youth, beauty, and change. Although old age brings a decline from the beauty and freshness of youth, the speaker comes to see life as a harmonious whole—meaning that every moment has its own pleasures and rewards.

41.Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R
 Assertion A: The implied reader shifts attention from the real reading individual to a disembodied dimension of reception, intricately interwoven into the text.
 Reason R: The ‘Dear Reader,’ invoked in the realist novels, is a fictional representation of the distant reader. In light of the above statements, 
choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below 
 1. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A 
 2. Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A 
3. A is correct but R is not correct 
4. A is not correct but R is correct 
 Correct Answer :‐ Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A 
Exp-According to Wolfgang Iser, “an implied reader is a hypothetical figure who is likely to get most of what the author intended.” When an author writes a book or article they do so with certain readers in mind and they believe that those known as the implied reader will understand or appreciate the metaphors and ironies .
The "dear reader" technique was widely used. The method derives from the earlier popular conception that fiction, since it was literally "untrue," was a base deception and morally unhealthy. Eighteenth-century authors, especially Defoe, took pains to insist that their novels were really accounts of true happenings, and, although the nineteenth century gradually came to accept fiction as fiction, the custom of speaking directly to the reader, as the editor of a journal or the author of a set of memoirs would do, persisted. Probably the most celebrated example of the use of the technique is Thackeray's Vanity Fair, where the author refers to his characters as "puppets" and admits almost shyly that he created an artificial world. The impulse to separate truth from fiction was still alive; it took the novel about another forty years to take its place as a serious art form which did not apologize for its own existence 42. Given below are two statements 
Statement I: The opening and closing lines of Waiting for Godot are spoken by Estragon.
 Statement II: Towards the end of the play Waiting for Godot, Estragon echoes Pozzo’s statement, “They give birth astride of a grave . . .”
 In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true 
 2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false 
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false 
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true 
 Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are true 
Exp- Waiting for Godot, tragicomedy in two acts by Irish writer Samuel Beckett, published in 1952 in French as En attendant Godot and first produced in 1953. Waiting for Godot was a true innovation in drama and the Theatre of the Absurd’s first theatrical success.
The play consists of conversations between Vladimir and Estragon, who are waiting for the arrival of the mysterious Godot, who continually sends word that he will appear but who never does. They encounter Lucky and Pozzo, they discuss their miseries and their lots in life, they consider hanging themselves, and yet they wait. Often perceived as being tramps, Vladimir and Estragon are a pair of human beings who do not know why they were put on earth; they make the tenuous assumption that there must be some point to their existence, and they look to Godot for enlightenment. Because they hold out hope for meaning and direction, they acquire a kind of nobility that enables them to rise above their futile existence.
43. Given below are two statements 
Statement I: Language is not a reliable tool of communication, says deconstruction, but argues in favour of a theory of sign as a self‐sufficient union of signifier and signified.
 Statement II: Deconstruction claims that language is non‐referential since it refers neither to the things in the world nor to our concepts of things but only to the play of signifiers.
 In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below 
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct 
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect 
 3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect 
 4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct 
Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
Exp- A principle tenet of deconstructionism is that language is always ambiguous and unstable, and that any word or sentence can have multiple meanings at once, and conflicting meanings at that. This is because a good deal of language is made up of binary oppositions: light/dark, strong/weak, man/woman, etc. 

44.Which Shakespearean comedy is structured as a play within a play? 
1. A Midsummer Night’s Dream 
 2. Love’s Labour’s Lost 
 3. The Comedy of Errors 
 4. The Taming of the Shrew 
Correct Answer :‐ A Midsummer Night’s Dream 

Exp- In A Midsummer Night's Dream (1605) Shakespeare has included another play entitled ‘The Most Lamentable Comedy, And Most Cruel Death of Pyramus and Thisbe’. In ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’ the manner of presentation is to some extent different from the so called dramas. The title itself denotes the same. The popular concept of ‘defamiliarization’ is missing here. Thus, there remains no scope of emotional attachment with the actors on the stage as they disclose their real identities. Undoubtedly, the audience in the play A Midsummer Night's Dream enjoys a great deal, but the performance fails to provide any Aesthetic pleasure. It must be said that a lesson they learn regarding the fact of love, separation and death. 45.Which of the following is a dead language?
1. Gothic 
2. Frisian 
3. Yiddish 
 4. Cantonese 
 Correct Answer :‐ Gothic 
Exp- Gothic language
Gothic language, dead language belonging to the now extinct East Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Gothic has special value for the linguist because it was recorded several hundred years before the oldest surviving texts of all the other Germanic languages (except for a handful of earlier runic inscriptions in Old Norse). Thus it sheds light on an older stage of a Germanic language and on the development of Germanic languages in general. The earliest extant document in Gothic preserves part of a translation of the Bible made in the 4th cent. AD by Ulfilas, a Gothic bishop. This translation is written in an adaptation of the Greek alphabet, supposedly devised by the bishop himself, which was later discarded.
46.Which of the following fictional characters is believed to be based on the 15 ‐century real‐life character, Vlad the Impaler?
1. Victor Frankenstein 
2. Peter Quint 
 3. Count Dracula 
 4. Prince Manfred 
 Correct Answer :‐  3

Exp- The name Dracula came from the old Romanian word for dragon, "drac." His son, Vlad III, would later be known as the "son of Dracul" or, in old Romanian, Drăculea, hence Dracula, according to Historian Constantin Rezachevici ("From the Order of the Dragon to Dracula" Journal of Dracula Studies, Vol 1, 1999).
Also known as Vlad III, Vlad Dracula (son of the Dragon), and—most famously—Vlad the Impaler (Vlad Tepes in Romanian), he was a brutal, sadistic leader famous for torturing his foes. By some estimates he is responsible for the deaths of more than 80,000 people in his lifetime—a large percentage of them by impalement.

47.Which of the following terms describes a novel of fashionable high life in 19 ‐century English literature? 
1. Brass‐Spittoon 
 2. Silver‐Fork 
 3. Golden‐Spoon 
 4. Diamond‐Jar 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- Fashionable novels, also called silver-fork novels, were a 19th-century genre of English literature that depicted the lives of the upper class and the aristocracy. The silver-fork novels dominated the English literature market from the mid-1820s to the mid-1840s. They were often indiscreet, and on occasion "keys" would circulate that identified the real people on which the principal characters were based. Their emphasis on the relations of the sexes and on marital relationships presaged later development in the novel.
William Hazlitt coined the term "silver fork" in an article on "The Dandy School" in 1827. He characterized them as having "under-bred tone" because while they purported to tell the lives of aristocrats, they were commonly written by the middle-class. Thomas Carlyle wrote Sartor Resartus in critique of their minute detailing of clothing, and William Makepeace Thackeray satirized them in Vanity Fair and Pendennis.
Theodore Hook was a major writer of fashionable novels, and Henry Colburn was a major publisher. Colburn particularly advertised fashionable novels as providing insight into aristocratic life by insiders.Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Benjamin Disraeli and Catherine Gore were other very popular writers of the genre. Many were advertised as being written by aristocrats, for aristocrats.
As more women wrote the genre, it became increasingly moralized: "middle-class morality became central, and the novels detailed the demise of the aristocracy, though the characteristically Byronic heroes of the genre remained." The most popular authors of silver fork novels were women, including Lady Blessington, Catherine Gore and Lady Bury.

48.What term did Bertolt Brecht use for his mode of drama‐writing to distinguish it from traditional theatre?
1. epic theatre 
 2. musical theatre 
 3. proletarian theatre 
4. kitchen‐sink theatre 
 Correct Answer :‐ epic theatre 
Exp- Epic theatre is now most often associated with the dramatic theory and practice evolved by the playwright-director Bertolt Brecht in Germany from the 1920s onward.
 49.Who among the following posits the tradition of great writers as an inescapable fact, and takes the ambivalent position of considering it as both a blessing and a curse? 
1. Harold Bloom 
 2. T. S. Eliot 
 3. Allen Tate 
 4. F.R. Leavis 
 Correct Answer :‐ Harold Bloom 
Exp- The tradition of great writers as an inescapable fact, and takes the ambivalent position of considering it as both a blessing and a curse is called Anxiety of Influence.It is a type of literary criticism established by Harold Bloom in 1973, in his book, The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. It refers to the psychological struggle of aspiring authors to overcome the anxiety posed by the influence of their literary antecedents. The theory of anxiety of influence is a theory applied principally to early nineteenth century romantic poetry. Its author, Harold Bloom, maintains that the theory has general applicability to the study of literary tradition, ranging from Homer and the Bible to Thomas Pynchon and Anne Carson in the 20th and 21st century. It is based primarily on Bloom's belief that there is no such thing as an original poem, that every new composition is simply a misreading or misinterpretation of an earlier poem and that influence is unavoidable and inescapable; all writers inevitably, to some degree, adopt, manipulate or alter and assimilate certain aspects of the content or subject matter, literary style or form from their predecessors.

50.Who among the following is associated with a ‘philosophy of praxis’? 
 1. Georg Lukacs 
 2. Raymond Williams 
 3. Stuart Hall 
 4. Antonio Gramsci 
 Correct Answer :‐ 4
Exp-The philosophy of praxis is consciousness full of contradictions in which the philosopher himself, understood both individually and as an entire social group, not merely grasps the contradictions, but posits himself as an element of the contradictions and elevates this element to a principle of knowledge and therefore .
Within the framework of Gramsci's prison writings, Notebooks 10 and 11 constitute the `philosophical' notebooks par excellence." Their integrating concept is that of philosophy of praxis. Christian Riechers states4 that the phrase "philosophy of praxis" is specific to the terminology of the Prison Notebooks, while Derek Boothman writes that "for 'Marxism,' Gramsci normally uses the term 'philosophy of praxis'

51.Which book by J.G. Ballard is about a virus that freezes anything it comes in contact with? 
 1. The Drowned World 
2. Concrete Island 
3. The Crystal World 
 4. Kingdom Come 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- The Drowned World is a 1962 science fiction novel by British writer J. G. Ballard. The novel depicts a post-apocalyptic future in which global warming (due to increased solar radiation) has caused the majority of the Earth to become uninhabitable. The story follows a team of scientists researching ongoing environmental developments in a flooded, abandoned London.
Concrete Island is a novel by British writer J. G. Ballard, first published in 1974.
A car accident leaves Robert Maitland, a wealthy architect in the midst of concealing his affair with a colleague, stranded in a large area of derelict land created by several intersecting motorways. Though surrounded by motorists and within sight of large buildings, Maitland is unable to escape the median strip and must struggle for survival. Along the way he encounters other inhabitants of the median strip, which he comes to call "The Island," including a teenaged prostitute who hides out in an abandoned air-raid bunker and an acrobat who became mentally handicapped in an accident and now salvages car parts for bizarre shamanic rituals. He learns to survive by scavenging discarded food from littering motorists, and eventually comes to think of the island as his true home. Conflicts ensue with the other inhabitants and before long Maitland is struggling to determine whether he was truly meant to leave the island at all.
The Crystal World is a science fiction novel by English author J. G. Ballard, published in 1966. The novel tells the story of a physician trying to make his way deep into the jungle to a secluded leprosy treatment facility. While trying to make it to his destination, his chaotic path leads him to try to come to terms with an apocalyptic phenomenon in the jungle that crystallises everything it touches.
Ballard previously used the theme of apocalyptic crystallisation in the 1964 short story "The Illuminated Man" (included in The Terminal Beach), which is also set in the same locations.
Kingdom Come by Elliot S. Maggin 

52.Which of the following terms is used to describe spurious words which are the result of inadvertent errors made by copyists, printers and editors? 
 1. dudwords 
 2. ghostwords 
 3. protowords 
4. pseudowords 
Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- A ghost word is a word published in a dictionary or similarly authoritative reference work, having rarely, if ever, been used in practice, and previously having been meaningless. As a rule, a ghost word will have originated from an error, such as a misinterpretation, mispronunciation, misreading, or from typographical or linguistic confusion.
Once authoritatively published, a ghost word occasionally may be copied widely and take a long time to be erased from usage (if it ever is).
Protoword (plural protowords) (linguistics) An early word-like utterance produced by an infant before it has acquired true language. (linguistics) A word-like utterance produced by early people who had yet to develop full language capability; a word from a proto-language.
A pseudoword is a unit of speech or text that appears to be an actual word in a certain language, while in fact it has no meaning in the lexicon. It is a kind of non-lexical vocable. A pseudoword is a specific type of non-word composed of a combination of phonemes which conform to the language's phonotactic rules.

53.Which of the following statements best articulates Frantz Fanon’s political position? 
1. Colonialism will die a natural death sans any violent struggle against it. 
2. Social oppression in the third world is a matter more of race than of class. 
3. The African bourgeoisie can never succeed  in the task of nation building. 
4. Peasants and social outcasts have little revolutionary potential in Africa. 
Correct Answer :‐ 1
Exp- Fanon perceived colonialism as a form of domination whose necessary goal for success was the reordering of the world of indigenous (“native”) peoples. He saw violence as the defining characteristic of colonialism.

54.Which of the following are books by Noam Chomsky?
 A. Syntactic Structures
 B. Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior
 C. Language and Society
 D. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax 
E. The Pragmatics of Politeness Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and C only 
 2. B and D only 
 3. C and E only 
 4. D and A only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and C only 
Exp- Syntactic Structures is an influential work in linguistics by American linguist Noam Chomsky, originally published in 1957. It is an elaboration of his teacher Zellig Harris's model of transformational generative grammar. A short monograph of about a hundred pages, Chomsky's presentation is recognized as one of the most significant studies of the 20th century. It contains the now-famous sentence "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously", which Chomsky offered as an example of a grammatically correct sentence that has no discernible meaning. Thus, Chomsky argued for the independence of syntax (the study of sentence structures) from semantics (the study of meaning).
Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (known in linguistic circles simply as Aspects) is a book on linguistics written by American linguist Noam Chomsky, first published in 1965. In Aspects, Chomsky presented a deeper, more extensive reformulation of transformational generative grammar (TGG), a new kind of syntactic theory that he had introduced in the 1950s with the publication of his first book, Syntactic Structures. Aspects is widely considered to be the foundational document and a proper book-length articulation of Chomskyan theoretical framework of linguistics. It presented Chomsky's epistemological assumptions with a view to establishing linguistic theory-making as a formal (i.e. based on the manipulation of symbols and rules) discipline comparable to physical sciences, i.e. a domain of inquiry well-defined in its nature and scope. From a philosophical perspective, it directed mainstream linguistic research away from behaviorism, constructivism, empiricism and structuralism and towards mentalism, nativism, rationalism and generativism, respectively, taking as its main object of study the abstract, inner workings of the human mind related to language acquisition and production.

55.Which among the following are examples of the Künstlerroman? 
A. The Portrait of a Lady
 B. David Copperfield
 C. Tom Jones
 D. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and C only 
 2. B and D only 
3. A and B only 
4. C and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and D only 
Exp- A Künstlerroman (German pronunciation: [ˈkʏnstlɐ.ʁoˌmaːn]; plural -ane), meaning "artist's novel" in English, is a narrative about an artist's growth to maturity.[1][2] It could be classified as a sub-category of Bildungsroman: a coming-of-age novel.[3] According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, one way a Künstlerroman may differ from a Bildungsroman is its ending, where a Künstlerroman hero rejects the everyday life, but a Bildungsroman hero settles for being an ordinary citizen.[4] According to Oxford Reference, the difference may lie in a longer view across the Künstlerroman hero's whole life, not just their childhood years.
 Major English Künstlerroman novels.
1805 William Wordsworth's The Prelude
1847 Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre
1848 Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall
1850 Charles Dickens' David Copperfield
1852 Herman Melville's Pierre: or, The Ambiguities
1856 Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh
1875 Henry James's Roderick Hudson
1890 Henry James's The Tragic Muse
1903 Samuel Butler's The Way of All Flesh
1909 Jack London's Martin Eden
1913 D. H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers
1915 W. Somerset Maugham's Of Human Bondage
1915 Willa Cather's The Song of the Lark
1916 James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man[1]
1918 Wyndham Lewis's Tarr
1920 F. Scott Fitzgerald's This Side of Paradise
1928 Radclyffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness
1929 Thomas Wolfe's Look Homeward, Angel
1933 Malcolm Lowry's Ultramarine
1936 George Orwell's Keep the Aspidistra Flying
1939 John Fante's Ask the Dust
1943 Betty Smith's A Tree Grows in Brooklyn
1945 Richard Wright's Black Boy
1946 Philip Larkin's Jill
1947 W.O. Mitchell's Who Has Seen the Wind
1952 Patricia Highsmith's The Price of Salt
1952 Ernest Buckler's The Mountain and the Valley
1955 William Gaddis's The Recognitions
1961 Irving Stone's The Agony and the Ecstasy
1963 Leonard Cohen's The Favourite Game
1970 Patrick White's The Vivisector
1971 Alice Munro's Lives of Girls and Women
1972 Chaim Potok's My Name Is Asher Lev
1973 Milan Kundera's Life Is Elsewhere
1974 Margaret Laurence's The Diviners
1978 John Irving's The World According to Garp
1981 Alasdair Gray's Lanark: A Life in Four Books
1982 Charles Bukowski's Ham on Rye[6]
1985 Jeanette Winterson's Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit
1988 Margaret Atwood's Cat's Eye
1999 Tracy Chevalier's Girl with a Pearl Earring[8]
2003 Jennifer Donnelly's A Northern Light
2006 Alison Bechdel's Fun Home
2006 Stew's Passing Strange
2010 Patti Smith's Just Kids
2010 Eileen Myles's Inferno (A Poet's Novel)
2010 Wena Poon's Alex y Robert
2011 Ben Lerner's Leaving the Atocha Station
2017 Ocean Vuong's On Earth We're Briefly Gorgeous
2020 Andrew Unger's Once Removed

56. Which of the following are novels by David Lodge? 
A. The British Museum is Falling down
 B. The Seven Sisters
 C. Changing Places
 D. Nice Work
 E. Empire of the Sun 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A, B and C only 
 2. B, D and E only 
 3. A, C and D only 
 4. C, D and E only 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- The British Museum is Falling Down (1965) is a comic novel by British author David Lodge about a 25-year-old poverty-stricken student of English literature who, rather than work on his thesis (entitled "The Structure of Long Sentences in Three Modern English Novels") in the reading room of the British Museum, is distracted time and again from his work and who gets into trouble instead.
Changing Places (1975) is the first "campus novel" by British novelist David Lodge. The subtitle is "A Tale of Two Campuses", and thus both the title and subtitle are literary allusions to Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities. It is the first novel, followed by Small World (1984) and Nice Work (1988).
Nice Work is a 1988 novel by British author David Lodge. It is the final volume of Lodge's "Campus Trilogy", after Changing Places (1975) and Small World: An Academic Romance (1984).Nice Work won the Sunday Express Book of the Year award in 1988 and was also shortlisted for the Booker Prize.

57.Which of the following statements are true of English as used in India?
 A. India is counted among the largest English‐speaking communities in the world.
B.No group, community or population of Indians claims English as its mother tongue.
 C. More than fifty per cent of Indians speak English fluently.
 D. English is the country’s principal language of commerce.
E.With the growing stature of Hindi as lingua franca, it has supplanted English as the link language between the central government and the states. Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and D only 
2. B and C only 
 3. C and E only 
 4. D and E only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and D only 
Exp- English as a National Foreign Language
India has the largest number of second-language speakers of English (see Indian English); Crystal (2004) claims that combining native and non-native speakers, India has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world. However, most scholars and research that has been conducted dispute his assertions.

India has two national languages for central administrative purposes: Hindi and English. Hindi is the national, official, and main link language of India. English is an associate official language. The Indian Constitution also officially approves twenty-two regional languages for official purposes.

Dozens of distinctly different regional languages are spoken in India, which share many characteristics such as grammatical structure and vocabulary. Apart from these languages, Hindi is used for communication in India. The homeland of Hindi is mainly in the north of India, but it is spoken and widely understood in all urban centers of India. In the southern states of India, where people speak many different languages that are not much related to Hindi, there is more resistance to Hindi, which has allowed English to remain a lingua franca to a greater degree.

Since the early 1600s, the English language has had a toehold on the Indian subcontinent, when the East India Company established settlements in Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai, formerly Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay respectively. The historical background of India is never far away from everyday usage of English. India has had a longer exposure to English than any other country which uses it as a second language, its distinctive words, idioms, grammar and rhetoric spreading gradually to affect all places, habits and culture.

In India, English serves two purposes. First, it provides a linguistic tool for the administrative cohesiveness of the country, causing people who speak different languages to become united. Secondly, it serves as a language of wider communication, including a large variety of different people covering a vast area. It overlaps with local languages in certain spheres of influence and in public domains.

Generally, English is used among Indians as a ‘link’ language and it is the first language for many well-educated Indians. It is also the second language for many who speak more than one language in India. The English language is a tie that helps bind the many segments of our society together. Also, it is a linguistic bridge between the major countries of the world and India.

English has special national status in India. It has a special place in the parliament, judiciary, broadcasting, journalism, and in the education system. One can see a Hindi-speaking teacher giving their students instructions during an educational tour about where to meet and when their bus would leave, but all in English. It means that the language permeates daily life. It is unavoidable and is always expected, especially in the cities.

The importance of the ability to speak or write English has recently increased significantly because English has become the de facto standard. Learning English language has become popular for business, commerce and cultural reasons and especially for internet communications throughout the world. English is a language that has become a standard not because it has been approved by any ‘standards’ organization but because it is widely used by many information and technology industries and recognized as being standard. The call centre phenomenon has stimulated a huge expansion of internet-related activity, establishing the future of India as a cyber-technological super-power. Modern communications, videos, journals and newspapers on the internet use English and have made ‘knowing English’ indispensable.

The prevailing view seems to be that unless students learn English, they can only work in limited jobs. Those who do not have basic knowledge of English cannot obtain good quality jobs. They cannot communicate efficiently with others, and cannot have the benefit of India’s rich social and cultural life. Men and women who cannot comprehend and interpret instructions in English, even if educated, are unemployable. They cannot help with their children’s school homework everyday or decide their revenue options of the future.
A positive attitude to English as a national language is essential to the integration of people into Indian society. There would appear to be virtually no disagreement in the community about the importance of English language skills. Using English you will become a citizen of the world almost naturally. English plays a dominant role in the media. It has been used as a medium for inter-state communication and broadcasting both before and since India’s independence. India is, without a doubt, committed to English as a national language. The impact of English is not only continuing but increasing.

58.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                                         List II
 (Author)                                                                                        (Text)
 A. Robert Browning                                                            I. Queen Mary
 B.S. T. Coleridge                                                   II.The Second Mrs   Tanqueray 
C. A. W. Pinero                                                                      III. Remorse
 D. Alfred Tennyson                                                              IV. The Borderers
 E. William Wordsworth                                                       V. Strafford
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A‐V; B‐III; C‐II; D‐I; E‐IV 
 2. A‐II; B‐IV; C‐III; D‐V; E‐I 
3. A‐III; B‐V; C‐II; D‐I; E‐IV 
 4. A‐IV; B‐II; C‐I; D‐V; E‐III 
 Correct Answer :‐ A‐V; B‐III; C‐II; D‐I; E‐IV 
Exp- The Second Mrs. Tanqueray is a problem play by Arthur Wing Pinero. It adopts the "Woman with a past" plot, popular in nineteenth century melodrama. The play was first produced in 1893 by the actor-manager George Alexander and despite causing some shock to his audiences by its scandalous subject it was a box-office success, and was revived in London and New York in many productions during the 20th century.
Osorio is a tragedy in blank verse by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. It was written in 1797 but was unperformed following its rejection by Drury Lane Theatre. Coleridge revised and recast the play sixteen years later, giving it the new title of Remorse. Remorse met with considerable critical and commercial success when it was first performed in 1813: it ran for twenty nights at Drury Lane and was issued in print three times within the year.
Despite the play's success, later critics dismissed the work as an Elizabethan pastiche. Swinburne said Remorse had "little worth praise or worth memory".
Historicist scholars, however, have identified a revolutionary viewpoint embedded within Osorio which Coleridge, disavowing his youthful radicalism, sought to dilute when he later reformulated the work to create Remorse.
Set in sixteenth-century Granada, the play is notable for its use of Gothic elements such as a castle, dungeon, cave and the supernatural. Coleridge's use of these may represent an attempt to elevate what he saw as the vulgar and sensational trappings of popular Gothic plays by situating them within a more refined form of poetic drama.
The Borderers, a tragedy in five acts, was Wordsworth's first major work. In the course of its composition he moved toward his later blank-verse style
Strafford is an 1837 tragedy by the British writer Robert Browning. It portrays the downfall and execution of Lord Strafford, the advisor to Charles I shortly before the English Civil War.

59. Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                                                List II
 (Book) (Poet) 
A. Anniversaries                                                                    I. Abraham Cowley 
B. The Temple                                                                        II. John Donne
 C. The Rehearsal Transpros’d                                            III. George Herbert 
D. Pindarique Odes                                                              IV. Andrew Marvell
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A‐I; B‐IV; C‐II; D‐III 
 2. A‐II; B‐III; C‐IV; D‐I 
 3. A‐III; B‐I; C‐IV; D‐II 
 4. A‐IV; B‐II; C‐I; D‐III 
Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- The Anniversary by John Donne is a dramatic lyric in which the poet celebrates his love which is now one year old. 
George Herbert's 1633 volume The Temple contains almost all of his English language poetry, and is the work for which he is best known.
 The Rehearsal Transpros'd (1672–3), of Andrew Marvell is a prose satire.
 Abraham Cowley’s Pindarique Odes (1656) introduced a looser version known as Pindarics. These are irregular rhymed odes in which the length of line and stanza is capriciously varied to suggest, but not reproduce, the style and manner of Pindar. These spurious Pindarics are some of the greatest odes in the English language,

60. Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                                          List II
 (Novel) (Writer)
 A. A Handful of Dust                                                           I. E. M. Forster 
B. Brighton Rock                                                                   II. Evelyn Waugh
 C. Howard’s End                                                                   III. D. H. Lawrence 
D. The Plumed Serpent                                                         IV. Aldous Huxley
 E. Those Barren Leaves                                                        V. Graham Greene
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A‐ III; B‐I; C‐V; D‐II; E‐IV 
 2. A‐ I; B‐IV; C‐II; D‐III; E‐V 
3. A‐ II; B‐V; C‐I; D‐III; E‐IV 
 4. A‐ V; B‐II, C‐IV, D‐I; E‐III 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3
Exp- A Handful of Dust is a novel by the British writer Evelyn Waugh. First published in 1934, it is often grouped with the author's early, satirical comic novels for which he became famous in the pre-World War II years. Commentators have, however, drawn attention to its serious undertones, and have regarded it as a transitional work pointing towards Waugh's Catholic postwar fiction.
The protagonist is Tony Last, a contented but shallow English country squire, who, having been betrayed by his wife and seen his illusions shattered one by one, joins an expedition to the Brazilian jungle, only to find himself trapped in a remote outpost as the prisoner of a maniac. Waugh incorporated several autobiographical elements into the plot, including his own recent desertion by his wife. In 1933–34 he travelled into the South American interior, and a number of incidents from the voyage are incorporated into the novel. Tony's singular fate in the jungle was first used by Waugh as the subject of an independent short story, published in 1933 under the title "The Man Who Liked Dickens".
Brighton Rock is a novel by Graham Greene, published in 1938 and later adapted for film in 1947 and 2010. The novel is a murder thriller set in 1930s Brighton. The title refers to a confectionery traditionally sold at seaside resorts with the name of the resort embedded in the centre and elongated down the length (so the same name is revealed wherever the stick is broken), which in the novel is used as a metaphor for the personality of Pinkie, which is the same all the way through.
Howards End is a novel by E. M. Forster, first published in 1910, about social conventions, codes of conduct and relationships in turn-of-the-century England. Howards End is considered by many to be Forster's masterpiece.
The Plumed Serpent is a 1926 political novel by D. H. Lawrence; Lawrence conceived the idea for the novel while visiting Mexico in 1923, and its themes reflect his experiences there. The novel was first published by Martin Secker's firm in the United Kingdom and Alfred A. Knopf in the United States; an early draft was published as Quetzalcoatl by Black Swan Books in 1995. The novel's plot concerns Kate Leslie, an Irish tourist who visits Mexico after the Mexican Revolution. She encounters Don Cipriano, a Mexican general who supports a religious movement, the Men of Quetzalcoatl, founded by his friend Don Ramón Carrasco. Within this movement, Cipriano is identified with Huitzilopochtli and Ramón with Quetzalcoatl. Kate eventually agrees to marry Cipriano, while the Men of Quetzalcoatl, with the help of a new President, bring about an end to Christianity in Mexico, replacing it with Quetzalcoatl worship.
The novel received negative reviews. Commentators have characterised it as fascist and an attack on Christianity, and seen it as expressing Lawrence's fears about the decline of the white race and belief in women's submission to men. It has also been interpreted as an expression of his personal political ambition and as having homoerotic aspects.
Those Barren Leaves is a satirical novel by Aldous Huxley, published in 1925. The title is derived from the poem "The Tables Turned" by William Wordsworth which ends with the words:
Enough of Science and of Art;Close up those barren leaves;Come forth, and bring with you a heartThat watches and receives.Stripping the pretensions of those who claim a spot among the cultural elite, it is the story of Mrs. Aldwinkle and her entourage, who are gathered in an Italian palace to relive the glories of the Renaissance. For all their supposed sophistication, they are nothing but sad and superficial individuals in the final analysis.

61.Arrange in the right sequence the following stages of a child’s first language acquisition:
 A. holophrastic
 B. babbling 
 C. telegraphic speech
 D. cooing
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A, C, D, B 
2. B, A, D, C 
 3. C, B, A, D 
4. D, B, A, C 
 Correct Answer :‐ A, C, D, B 
Exp- In the study of language acquisition, holophrasis is the prelinguistic use of a single word to express a complex idea. A holophrase may resemble an interjection, but whereas an interjection is linguistic, and has a specific grammatical function, a holophrase is simply a vocalization memorized by rote and used without grammatical intent.
Toddlers pass through a holophrastic stage early in life, during which they are able to communicate complex ideas using only single words and simple fixed expressions. As an example, the word "food" might be used to mean "Give me food" and the word "up" could convey "Pick me up".
Combined with body language, context, and tone of voice, holophrasis is usually sufficient to express a child's needs. Indeed, it is based almost entirely on context.
One interesting feature of holophrasis is its economy, and its emphasis on certainty rather than conceptual completeness. When expressing a complex idea, a child will often omit the more familiar concepts and use only the most recently learned word. For instance, when requesting a ball, a child is far more likely to specify "ball" than "want".
Although holophrasis is non-grammatical, it forms the foundation of a child's vocabulary.
Cooing, also known as gurgling or mewing, is another universal stage of development and generally occurs when babies are around 6-8 weeks old. It is thought that during this stage the child is discovering its vocal chords and sounds like 'coo' 'goo' and 'ga-ga' are made.

62.Choose the right chronological sequence of the following books: 
A. Arundhati Roy, The God of Small Things
 B. Kiran Desai, The Inheritance of Loss
 C. Shashi Deshpande, That Long Silence
 D. Jhumpa Lahiri, The Namesake 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A, D, B, C 
2. B, C, D, A 
3. C, A, D, B 
 4. D, B, C, A 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3

Exp- Indian feminist author Shashi Deshpande's fifth novel, That Long Silence (1989), won the Sahitya Akademi Award, given by the Indian Academy of Arts and Letters .
The God of Small Things is a family drama novel written by Indian writer Arundhati Roy. Roy's debut novel, it is a story about the childhood experiences of fraternal twins whose lives are destroyed by the "Love Laws" prevalent in 1960s Kerala, India. The novel explores how small, seemingly insignificant things shape people's behavior and their lives. The novel also explores the lingering effects of casteism in India. It won the Booker Prize in 1997.
The Namesake (2003) is the debut novel by American author Jhumpa Lahiri. It was originally published in The New Yorker and was later expanded to a full-length novel. It explores many of the same emotional and cultural themes as Lahiri's Pulitzer Prize-winning short story collection Interpreter of Maladies. The novel moves between events in Calcutta, Boston, and New York City, and examines the nuances involved with being caught between two conflicting cultures with distinct religious, social, and ideological differences.
The Inheritance of Loss is the second novel by Indian author Kiran Desai. It was first published in 2006. 
 63.Arrange the following terms in the chronological order as these appeared in literary theory:
 A. Phallogocentrism 
B. Locutionary act
 C. Interpellation 
D. Interpretive community
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A, D, C, B 
 2. B, C, A, D 
3. C, B, D, A 
 4. D, A, B, C 
 Correct Answer :‐ 3

Exp- In critical theory and deconstruction, phallogocentrism is a neologism coined by Jacques Derrida to refer to the privileging of the masculine (phallus) in the construction of meaning. The word is a portmanteau of the older terms phallocentrism (focusing on the masculine point of view) and logocentrism (focusing on language in assigning meaning to the world).
Derrida and others identified phonocentrism, or the prioritizing of speech over writing, as an integral part of phallogocentrism. Derrida explored this idea in his essay "Plato's Pharmacy“ in 1972.

In linguistics and the philosophy of language, a locutionary act is the performance of an utterance, and is one of the types of force, in addition to illocutionary act and perlocutionary act, typically cited in Speech Act Theory.
The first of these opinions is the one held by John L. Austin who coined the term "speech act" in his book How to Do Things with Words published posthumously in 1962.
In Marxist theory, interpellation—the process by which we encounter a culture's or ideology's values and internalize them—is an important concept regarding the notion of ideology. It is associated in particular with the work of French philosopher Louis Althusser. In his  famous essay "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes Towards an Investigation)" is an essay by the French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser. First published in 1970, it advances Althusser's theory of ideology.
Interpretive communities are a theoretical concept stemming from reader-response criticism and publicized by Stanley Fish although it was in use in other fields and may be found as early as 1964 in the "Historical News and Notices" of the Tennessee Historical Quarterly 

64.Given below are two statements: Statement I: All research being original and uninspired, it is rare for a researcher to begin a project by deriving ideas from predecessors. Statement II: Studying and documenting past work on a research topic stifles the continual expansion of human knowledge. In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below: 
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct. 
 2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect. 
 3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect. 
 4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct. 
Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect. 
Exp- No research is original and uninspired, it is rare for a researcher to begin a project without deriving ideas from predecessors. Studying and documenting past work on a research topic never stifles the continual expansion of human knowledge in fact it increases knowledge.
65. Given below are two statements: Statement I: A pidgin is formed by two mutually unintelligible speech communities trying to communicate using the most obvious features of each other’s language. Statement II: Notwithstanding the number of years a pidgin is spoken, it can never become the mother tongue of a community. In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below: 
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct. 
 2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect. 
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect. 
 4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct. 
Correct Answer :‐ Both Statement I and Statement II are correct.
Exp- A pidgin or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Linguists do not typically consider pidgins as full or complete languages.
Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language.
A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from a multitude of languages as well as onomatopoeia. As the lexicon of any pidgin will be limited to core vocabulary, words with only a specific meaning in the lexifier language may acquire a completely new (or additional) meaning in the pidgin.
Pidgins have historically been considered a form of patois, unsophisticated simplified versions of their lexifiers, and as such usually have low prestige with respect to other languages. However, not all simplified or "unsophisticated" forms of a language are pidgins. Each pidgin has its own norms of usage which must be learned for proficiency in the pidgin.
 66.Which of the following are true of the dramatic legacy of Ben Jonson?
 A.Jonson’s physiological interpretation of character and personality did not have any precedent.
 B.Taking after the practice of the Moralities and Interludes, Jonson named his dramatis personae aptronymically.
C.Chapman’s All Fools and Middleton’s A Trick to Catch the Old One belong to the genre of Comedy of Humours that Jonson is said to have pioneered. D.John Marston and Thomas Dekker collaborated with Jonson in writing for a children’s company of players.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C  only 
 3. C and D only 
 4. D and A only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- Jonson’s physiological interpretation of character and personality did not have any precedent.
Taking after the practice of the Moralities and Interludes, Jonson named his dramatis personae aptronymically.

67. Who is the author of The Truth about Me: A Hijra Life Story?
 1. A. Revathi 
 2. V. Geetha 
3. Bama 
 4. Mukta Sarvagod 
 Correct Answer :‐ 1
Exp- The Truth about Me: A Hijra Life Story
 By Rēvati published in 2010 .
Revathi was born a boy, but felt and behaved like a girl. In telling her life story, Revathi evokes marvellously the deep unease of being in the wrong body that plagued her from childhood. To be true to herself, to escape the constant violence visited upon her by her family and community, the village-born Revathi ran away to Delhi to join a house of hijras. Her life became an incredible series of dangerous physical and emotional journeys to become a woman and to find love. The Truth about Me is the unflinchingly courageous and moving autobiography of a hijra who fought ridicule, persecution and violence both within her home and outside to find a life of dignity.

68. Who wrote The Labyrinth of Solitude? 
1. Gabriel Garcia Marquez 
 2. Octavio Paz 
 3. Gabriela Mistral 
 4. Jorge Luis Borges 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- The Labyrinth of Solitude
The Labyrinth of Solitude (Spanish: El laberinto de la soledad) is a 1950 book-length essay by the Mexican poet Octavio Paz. One of his most famous works, it consists of nine parts: "The Pachuco and other extremes", "Mexican Masks", "The Day of the Dead", "The Sons of La Malinche", "The Conquest and Colonialism", "From Independence to the Revolution", "The Mexican Intelligence", "The Present Day" and "The Dialectic of Solitude". After 1975 some editions included the essay "Post data", which discusses the massacre of hundreds of Mexican students in 1968. (Paz abandoned his position as ambassador in India in reaction to this event.) The essays are predominantly concerned with the theme of Mexican identity and demonstrate how, at the end of the existential labyrinth, there is a profound feeling of solitude. As Paz argues:
Solitude is the profoundest fact of the human condition. Man is the only being who knows he is alone, and the only one who seeks out another. His nature – if that word can be used in reference to man, who has 'invented' himself by saying 'no' to nature – consists of his longing to realize himself in another. Man is nostalgic and in search for communion. Therefore, when he is aware of himself he is aware of his lack of another, that is, of his solitude.
Paz observes that solitude is responsible for the Mexican's perspective on death, fiesta, and identity. Death is celebrated but at the same time repelled because of the uncertainty behind it. As for the fiestas, they express a sense of communality, crucially emphasizing the idea of not being alone and in doing so, help to bring out the true Mexican that is usually hidden behind a mask of self-denial. This represents the way in which the Mexicans have inherited two distinct cultures, the Spanish and the Indigenous, but by denying one part of their identity, they become stuck in a world of solitude.
From the chapter "The Conquest and Colonialism" onwards, Paz makes a detailed analysis of Mexican history beginning with a look at the Pre-Columbian culture and in particular reflecting on the 1910 Revolt. In his analysis, he expresses how the humanists take a primary role as the intellectuals of the country. His major criticism is that to be an intellectual it is necessary to distance oneself from the subject that you are studying so that the argument remains critical yet rational and objective. As the intellectual gets more involved with the political environment, his arguments can often become influenced by other factors such as political motivation and pressure to conform.
The critic Harold Bloom listed The Labyrinth of Solitude as one of the artistic works that have been important and influential in Western culture in The Western Canon (1994)
 69.What was the centre set up for studying culture at the University of Birmingham called? 
1. Centre for Contemporary Studies 
2. Centre for Culture Studies 
 3. Centre for New Cultural Studies 
 4. Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- Centre for Contemporary Studies
Exp- The Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was a research centre at the University of Birmingham, England. It was founded in 1964 by Stuart Hall and Richard Hoggart, its first director. From 1964 to 2002, the Centre played a "critical" role in developing the field of cultural studies.

70.Who is the creator of the character, Julien Sorel?
 1. Balzac 
 2. Flaubert 
 3. Moliere 
 4. Stendhal 
 Correct Answer :‐ 4
Exp- Julien Sorel is the protagonist of The Red and the Black by Stendhal, published in 1830. Originally, the novel was meant to be eponymous.

71. Which of these are true of Raymond Williams’ Culture and Society?
 A. It critiques the idea of high culture.
 B. It overlooks the idea of high culture.
 C. It defines culture as a way of life.
 D. It equates culture with science. 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. A and C only 
3. B and D only 
 4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- Culture and Society is a book published in 1958 by Welsh progressive writer Raymond Williams, exploring how the notion of culture developed in Great Britain, from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries.
When first published, the book was regarded as having overturned conventional social and historical thinking about culture. It argues that the notion of culture developed in response to the Industrial Revolution and the social and political changes it brought in its wake. This is done through a series of studies of famous British writers and essayists, beginning with Edmund Burke and William Cobbett, also looking at William Blake, William Wordsworth, etc., and continuing as far as F. R. Leavis, George Orwell and Christopher Caudwell.
The book is still in print, in several editions. It has also been translated into many languages.

72. Which of the following does Urvashi Butalia’s The Other Side of Silence primarily seek to do?
 A. To understand the Partition as something more than a political divide
 B. To foreground a personal history of the Partition
 C. To foreground the Partition as an event more tragic than the Holocaust 
D. To find and unite families separated at the Partition
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
 3. C and D only 
4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India
 Is a book by Urvashi Butalia published in 2000.
The partition of India into two countries, India and Pakistan, caused one of the most massive human convulsions in history. Within the space of two months in 1947 more than twelve million people were displaced. A million died. More than seventy-five thousand women were abducted and raped. Countless children disappeared. Homes, villages, communities, families, and relationships were destroyed. Yet, more than half a century later, little is known of the human dimensions of this event. In The Other Side of Silence , Urvashi Butalia fills this gap by placing people—their individual experiences, their private pain—at the center of this epochal event.
Through interviews conducted over a ten-year period and an examination of diaries, letters, memoirs, and parliamentary documents, Butalia asks how people on the margins of history—children, women, ordinary people, the lower castes, the untouchables—have been affected by this upheaval. To understand how and why certain events become shrouded in silence, she traces facets of her own poignant and partition-scarred family history before investigating the stories of other people and their experiences of the effects of this violent disruption. Those whom she interviews reveal that, at least in private, the voices of partition have not been stilled and the bitterness remains. Throughout, Butalia reflects on difficult questions: what did community, caste, and gender have to do with the violence that accompanied partition? What was partition meant to achieve and what did it actually achieve? How, through unspeakable horrors, did the survivors go on? Believing that only by remembering and telling their stories can those affected begin the process of healing and forgetting, Butalia presents a sensitive and moving account of her quest to hear the painful truth behind the silence.
73. Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                            List II
 (Book)                                                                       (Author)
 A. English, August                                           I. Shyam Selvadurai
 B. In Custody                                                    II. Anita Desai
 C. Such a Long Journey                                  III. Rohinton Mistry
 D. Funny Boy                                                        IV. Upamanyu Chatterjee
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐ IV, B ‐ II, C ‐ III, D ‐ I 
 2. A ‐ III, B ‐ II, C ‐ I, D ‐ IV 
 3. A ‐ I, B ‐ II, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
4. A ‐ II, B ‐ IV, C ‐ I, D ‐ III 
 Correct Answer :‐ A ‐ IV, B ‐ II, C ‐ III, D ‐ I 
Exp- English, August: An Indian Story is a novel by Indian author Upamanyu Chatterjee written in English, first published in 1988. It was adapted into a film of the same name in 1994. The novel portrays the struggle of a civil servant who is posted in a rural area and is considered to be a very authentic portrayal of the state of Indian youth in the 1980s.
In Custody (1984) is a novel set in Delhi, India by Indian American writer Anita Desai. It was shortlisted for the Booker Prize in 1984.
Such a Long Journey is a 1991 novel by Rohinton Mistry. It was shortlisted for the Booker Prize and won several other awards. In 2010 the book made headlines when it was withdrawn from the University of Mumbai's English syllabus after complaints from the Maharashtrian politician Aditya Thackeray.
Funny Boy is a coming-of-age novel by Sri Lankan-Canadian author Shyam Selvadurai. First published by McClelland and Stewart in September 1994, the novel won the Lambda Literary Award for Gay Fiction and the Books in Canada First Novel Award.
Set in Sri Lanka where Selvadurai grew up, Funny Boy is constructed in the form of six poignant stories about a boy coming to age within a wealthy Tamil family in Colombo. Between the ages of seven and fourteen, he explores his sexual identity, and encounters the Sinhala-Tamil tensions leading up to the 1983 riots.

74. Which of these may be said to be true of the journal published from Bowling Green University from 1969, which carried essays on Spiderman comics, rock music, and detective films? 
A. It sought to highlight the importance of popular culture.
 B. It sought to highlight the importance of elite culture.
 C. It sought to buttress the canon by making it more elitist.
 D. It sought to break down the dominance of ‘high’ culture.
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. A and D only 
 3. B and C only 
 4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and D only 
Exp- It sought to highlight the importance of popular culture.
  It sought to break down the dominance of ‘high’ culture.

75.Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                         List II
 (Writer)                                                                   (Book)
 A. Homi Bhabha                                                        I. Reading the Popular
 B. T S Eliot                                                                II. The Location of Culture
 C. Roland Barthes                          III. Notes towards the Definition of Culture
 D. John Fiske                                                  IV. Image‐Music‐Text 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐ IV, B ‐ II, C ‐ III, D ‐ I 
2. A ‐ III, B ‐ II, C ‐ I, D ‐ IV 
 3. A ‐ I, B ‐ II, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
4. A ‐ II, B ‐ III, C ‐ IV, D ‐ I 
 Correct Answer :‐ . A ‐ II, B ‐ III, C ‐ IV, D ‐ I
Exp-Reading the Popular is a path breaking cult book in the field of Cultural Studies written by John Fiske published in 1989 .
'...well-written and accessible. Making the difficult seem easy is Fiske's great talent. No introductory reading list in the field would be complete without a Fiske' - Sociology In Reading the Popular, John Fiske analyzes popular "texts" to reveal both their explicit, implicit (and often opposite) meanings and uses, and the social and political dynamics they reflect. He examines the multitude of meanings lying beneath the cultural artifacts that surround us in shopping malls, popular music and television. Features: * highlights the conflicting responses that cultural phenomenon such as Madonna and the Chicago Sears Tower evoke. * locates popular culture as the point at which people take the goods offered them by industrial capitalism and turn them to their own creative, and even subversive, uses. * refutes the theory that a mass audience mindlessly consumes every product it is offered.
The Location of Culture is a famous book by Homi K. Bhabha published in  2004. 
Rethinking questions of identity, social agency and national affiliation, Bhabha provides a working, if controversial, theory of cultural hybridity - one that goes far beyond previous attempts by others. In The Location of Culture, he uses concepts such as mimicry, interstice, hybridity, and liminality to argue that cultural production is always most productive where it is most ambivalent. Speaking in a voice that combines intellectual ease with the belief that theory itself can contribute to practical political change, Bhabha has become one of the leading post-colonial theorists of this era.
Notes Towards the Definition of Culture, critical treatise by T.S. Eliot that originally appeared as a series of articles in New England Weekly in 1943. It was published in book form in 1948. In the Notes, Eliot presents culture as an organic, shared system of beliefs that cannot be planned or artificially induced. Its chief means of transmission, he holds, is the family. The book has been viewed as a critique of postwar Europe and a defense of conservatism and Christianity.
Image, Music, Text is a book by Roland Barthes published in 1977 . 
'Image-Music-Text' brings together major essays by Roland Barthes on the structural analysis of narrative and on issues in literary theory, on the semiotics of photograph and film, on the practice of music and voice. Throughout the volume runs a constant movement 'from work to text': an attention to the very 'grain' of signifying activity and the desire to follow -- in literature, image, film, song and theatre -- whatever turns, displaces, shifts, disperses. Stephen Heath, whose translation has been described as "skilful and readable" (TLS) and "quite brilliant" (TES), is the author of 'Vertige du déplacement', a study of Barthes. His selection of essays, each important in its own right, also serves as "the best...introduction so far to Barthesʹ career as the slayer of contemporary myths" 

76. Who, among these, are songwriters who have been awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature?
 A. Elton John 
B. Rabindranath Tagore
 C. Bob Dylan
 D. Bob Marley 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
 3. C and D only 
 4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ B and C only 
Exp- Bob Dylan, original name Robert Allen Zimmerman, (born May 24, 1941, Duluth, Minnesota, U.S.), American folksinger who moved from folk to rock music in the 1960s, infusing the lyrics of rock and roll, theretofore concerned mostly with boy-girl romantic innuendo, with the intellectualism of classic literature and poetry. Hailed as the Shakespeare of his generation, Dylan sold tens of millions of albums, wrote more than 500 songs recorded by more than 2,000 artists, performed all over the world, and set the standard for lyric writing. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2016.
Rabindranath Tagore  7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941) was a Bengali polymath who worked as a poet, writer, playwright, composer, philosopher, social reformer and painter. He reshaped Bengali literature and music as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of the "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful" poetry of Gitanjali, he became in 1913 the first non-European and the first lyricist to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore's poetic songs were viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. He was a fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society. Referred to as "the Bard of Bengal",

77.Which of the following qualify for the label ‘cultural intermediary’ in the context of a commercial film?
 A. The film magazine columnist
 B. The director
 C. Fan clubs
 D. The producer
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. A and C only 
3. B and C only 
 4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- Cultural intermediaries are 'taste-makers' who leverage their own personal experiences into occupational resources to legitimate certain forms of culture over others (Bourdieu, 1984). cultural intermediaries are defined by their role in mediating between produc- tion and consumption. They have a broadly pedagogic function, shaping the perceptions and preferences of consumers in order to mobilize their actions along desired routes.In the light of the above statement a film magazine columnist and a director are also cultural intermediaries.

78. Which of the following is true of mass media?
 1. It usually has a central, single source. 
2. Its audience is in close proximity to its source. 
 3. It can affect a localised population only. 
 4. It usually has multiple sources. 
 Correct Answer :‐ It usually has a central, single source. 
Exp- Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets.
Broadcast media transmit information electronically via media such as films, radio, recorded music, or television. Digital media comprises both Internet and mobile mass communication. Internet media comprise such services as email, social media sites, websites, and Internet-based radio and television. Many other mass media outlets have an additional presence on the web, by such means as linking to or running TV ads online, or distributing QR codes in outdoor or print media to direct mobile users to a website. In this way, they can use the easy accessibility and outreach capabilities the Internet affords, as thereby easily broadcast information throughout many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost-efficiently. Outdoor media transmit information via such media as AR advertising; billboards; blimps; flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes); placards or kiosks placed inside and outside buses, commercial buildings, shops, sports stadiums, subway cars, or trains; signs; or skywriting. Print media transmit information via physical objects, such as books, comics, magazines, newspapers, or pamphlets. Event organising and public speaking can also be considered forms of mass media.
The organisations that control these technologies, such as movie studios, publishing companies, and radio and television stations, are also known as the mass media.

79.With which of the following movements is Charles Baudelaire’s Flowers of Evil generally associated? 
A. Neo‐classical 
B. Symbolist
 C. Modernist
 D. Postmodernist
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. B and C only 
 3. C and D only 
4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- Les Fleurs du mal (French pronunciation: [le flœʁ dy mal]; English: The Flowers of Evil) is a volume of French poetry by Charles Baudelaire.
Les Fleurs du mal includes nearly all of Baudelaire's poetry, written in 1840 and ending with his death in August 1867. First published in 1857, it was important in the symbolist and modernist movements. It was considered extremely controversial upon publication, and six of the poems were censored due to their immorality; however, it is now considered to be a major work of French poetry. The poems in Les Fleurs du mal frequently break with tradition, using suggestive images and unusual forms. The poems deal with themes relating to decadence and eroticism, particularly focusing on suffering and its relationship to the original sin, disgust toward evil and oneself, obsession with death, and aspiration toward an ideal world. Les Fleurs du mal was highly influential toward several notable French poets, including Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, and Stéphane Mallarmé.

80. Which of these departments did the Wood’s Despatch of 1854 recommend setting up in the universities?
 A. Arabic 
 B. English
 C. French
 D. Law
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A, B and C only 
 2. A, B and D only 
 3. B, C and D only 
4. A, C and D only 
Correct Answer :‐ A, B and C only 
Exp- In 1854, Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the British East India Company, sent a formal dispatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India, suggesting a large shift to English language use within India. Sir Wood recommended that primary schools adopt vernacular languages, high schools adopt Anglo-vernacular language and that English be the medium of education in colleges. This communiqué is informally known as Wood's dispatch.
Wood's letter played an important role in the spread of English learning and female education in India. One of the most favorable steps taken was to create an English class among Indian people to be used as workforce in the company's administration. Vocational and women's education were also emphasized more heavily.
This period of time in the British Raj was part of a final phase where the British governmental administration brought social reforms into India. After this period, the governing policies tended to become more reactionary, notably in the wake of major social and political unrest surrounding the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Wood recommended that:
English education will enhance the moral character of Indians and thus supply EIC with civil servants who can be trusted.
An education department was to be set up in every province.
Universities on the model of the London university be established in big cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
At least one government school be opened in every district.
Affiliated private schools should be given grant in aid.
The Indian natives should be given training in their mother tongue also.
Provision was made for a systematic method of education from primary level to the university level.
The government should support education for women.
The medium of instruction at the primary level was to be vernacular while at the higher levels it would be English.
Promotion and stress on teachers’ training at all levels.

81. Which of these are generally taken to be true of Cultural Studies?
 A. It is politically engaged.
 B. It privileges text over context.
 C. It has a symbiotic relationship with Formalism.
 D. It studies the means of production of a text. 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. A and C only 
3. A and D only 
4. B and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- Cultural Studies traces the relationships among aesthetic, anthropological, and political economic aspects of cultural production and reproduction. Cultural studies scholars and practitioners often begin their inquiries by questioning the common understandings, beliefs, and histories that shape our world. Cultural texts are those objects, actions, and behaviors that reveal cultural meanings. Â A photo is an image, but is also a cultural text, a picture with cultural information beyond just the picture itself. Like a number of other often overlapping bodies of intellectual and academic work that have emerged since World War II (feminism, critical race theory, postcolonial theory, and queer theory, among others), cultural studies is politically driven; it is committed to understanding power

82. Which of these countries does Montaigne’s essay, “Of Cannibals,” focus on primarily?
1. India 
2. Brazil 
3. Japan 
 4. Borneo 
 Correct Answer :‐ 2
Exp- Of Cannibals (Des Cannibales) written circa 1580 is an essay, one of those in the collection Essays, by Michel de Montaigne, describing the ceremonies of the Tupinambá people in Brazil. In particular, he reported about how the group ceremoniously ate the bodies of their dead enemies as a matter of honor. In his work, he uses cultural relativism and compares the cannibalism to the "barbarianism" of 16th-century Europe.

83.Arrange the following characters in the chronological order in which they appeared in Indian literature.
 A. Praneshacharya (Samskara) 
B. Sakuni (Mahabharata) 
C. Rusty (The Room on the Roof)
 D. Gobar (Godan)
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. A, B, C, D 
 2. B, A, C, D 
3. B, C, D, A 
 4. B, D, C, A 
Correct Answer :‐ B, D, C, A
Exp- Shakuni (Sanskrit: शकुनि, IAST: Śakuni, lit. 'bird') is one of the principal characters in the Hindu epic Mahabharata.He is one of the main antagonist of the epic Mahabharata. He was the prince of the kingdom of Gandhara when introduced, later becoming its king after the death of his father, Subala. He was the brother of Gandhari and the maternal uncle of the Kauravas.
Godaan  is a famous Hindi novel by Munshi Premchand. It was first published in 1936 and is considered one of the greatest Hindi novels of modern Indian literature. Themed around the socio-economic deprivation as well as the exploitation of the village poor, the novel was the last complete novel of Premchand. It has been translated into English in 1957 by Jai Ratan and Purushottama Lal as The Gift of a Cow. A 1968 translation by Gordon C. Roadarmel is now considered "a classic in itself".
Gobar is the only son of Dhania and Hori. Born into a poor family, he aspires for a life of comfort. Though initially a simpleton like his father, he gets exposure in the city, Lucknow, and learns to be practical and worldly wise. He impregnates Jhunia, Bhola's daughter, and lacking courage to face the wrath of the villagers, flees to the city, leaving Jhunia at his parents' doorstep. His insensitive hasty behaviour creates trouble to Hori, who pays the penalty. Gobar works for Mirza Kursheed, but creates his own business. He also lends money to other people. When he comes to the village dressed as a gentleman with pump shoes, on a short visit, he is unrecognised with difficulty. He becomes the centre of attraction in the village, the other young men are tempted to go to the city seeing him. He promises to get them jobs. Upon learning that Datadin is exploiting his father, he advises his father to come out of the shackles of traditional bindings. He organises a function and with his friends enacts a skit to expose and satirise the mean mentality of the village money lenders and the Brahmin priest. He threatens to drag the priest to court and has a fight with his father on this issue. He realises that Hori is too simple, god fearing and cannot go against his dharma. Angrily, he leaves the village with his wife Jhunia and returns to the city. His weakness for liquour and short tempered nature affects his relation with Jhunia. He realises his mistake only when his devoted wife nurses him during his illness. He works in the sugar factory and later becomes the chowkidar at Malathi's house.
The Room on the Roof is a novel written by Ruskin Bond. It was Bond's first literary venture. Bond wrote the novel when he was seventeen[2] and won the John Llewellyn Rhys Prize in 1957. The novel revolves around Rusty, an orphaned seventeen-year-old Anglo-Indian boy living in Dehradun. Due to his guardian, Mr Harrison's strict ways, he runs away from his home to live with his Indian friends. Rusty: an orphan boy in the novel.
A study of 'Samskara', a novel written by U.R.Anantha Murthy, Indian novelists. U.R. Anantha Murthty’s ‘Samskara’ was first published in 1965 and it was made into a film in 1970.

84.Which of these themes best sums up the preoccupation of most of Vijay Tendulkar’s plays? 
1. Dynamics of media 
 2. Motivations of crime 
 3. Workings of power 
 4. Workings of love triangles 
 Correct Answer :‐ Workings of power
Exp- Vijay Dhondopant Tendulkar (6 January 1928 – 19 May 2008) was a leading Indian playwright, movie and television writer, literary essayist, political journalist, and social commentator primarily in Marāthi.Vijay Tendulkar is one of India’s greatest playwrights , whose hard-hitting Marathi plays established him as an irreverent but brilliant writer of plays with contemporary, unconventional themes. He is best known for his plays Shantata! Court Chalu Aahe (1967), Ghāshirām Kotwāl (1972), and Sakhārām Binder (1972). Many of Tendulkar's plays derived inspiration from real-life incidents or social upheavals, which provide clear light on harsh realities. He has provided guidance to students studying "play writing" in US universities. Tendulkar had been a highly influential dramatist and theatre personality in Mahārāshtra for over five decades.
Society and politics are strongly highlighted in Tendulkar's plays. Tendulkar had Leftist views. In particular, he was against Hindu social groups, especially against Brahmins; most of his dramas show Brahmins in a bad light.

85. Which of these is identified by Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart as having been deployed in Walt Disney comic books to propagate imperialist ideology? 
1. Impoverishment 
 2. Deification 
 3. Personification 
 4. Infantilisation 
 Correct Answer :‐ Impoverishment 
Exp- How to Read Donald Duck is a 1971 book-length essay by Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart that critiques Disney comics from a Marxist point of view as capitalist propaganda for American corporate and cultural imperialism. It was first published in Chile in 1971, became a bestseller throughout Latin America and is still considered a seminal work in cultural studies. It was reissued in August 2018 to a general audience in the United States, with a new introduction by Dorfman, by OR Books.

86. Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                          List II
 (Poem)                                                                                (Poet)
 A. “The Road Not Taken”                                               I. Pablo Neruda 
B. “Tonight I can Write the Saddest Lines”                II. Robert Frost
 C. “I hear America Singing”                                         III. Langston Hughes
 D. "I, too, Sing America"                                             IV. Walt Whitman 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
2. A ‐ I, B ‐ II, C ‐ III, D ‐ IV 
3. A ‐ III, B ‐ II, C ‐ IV, D ‐ I 
 4. A ‐ IV, B ‐ I, C ‐ II, D ‐ III 
 Correct Answer :‐ A ‐ II, B ‐ I, C ‐ IV, D ‐ III 
Exp-"The Road Not Taken" is a narrative poem by Robert Frost, first published in the August 1915 issue of The Atlantic Monthly, and later published as the first poem in the collection Mountain Interval (1916). Its central theme is the divergence of paths, both literally and figuratively, although its interpretation is noted for being complex and potentially divergent.
Pablo Neruda, the poet of ‘Tonight I Can Write’, belonged to the Generation of 1927, a group of Spanish poets. Different people have opined differently about Neruda, but the truth is that he won the hearts of millions by virtue of his poetry. Neruda became a much greater poet than Vallejo who deserved recognition more.  Though he lacked the ability to be critical and discerning yet, he was at times quite perceptive about his country and its poets. Besides he was also regarded as a generous man but he also had to face a lot of derision of his critics due to his loyalty to Commission. His readers still regard him as their most favorite poets.
. “I hear America Singing”  is a famous poem by Walt Whitman.
"I, Too" is a poem written by Langston Hughes that demonstrates a yearning for equality through perseverance while disproving the idea that patriotism is limited by race. It was first published in Hughes' first volume of poetry, The Weary Blues in 1926. This poem, along with other works by Hughes, helped define the Harlem Renaissance, a period in the early 1920s and '30s of newfound cultural identity for blacks in America who had discovered the power of literature, art, music, and poetry as a means of personal and collective expression in the scope of civil rights.In the poem, Hughes describes a ubiquitous racial oppression that degrades African Americans at the time. He writes from the perspective of an inferior servant to a domineering white family that shoos him away to the kitchen whenever company arrives.

87. Which of the following did Owuor Anyumba, Taban Lo Liyong and Ngugi wa Thiongo object to in 1968? 
A. the primacy of English literatures and cultures 
B. the centrality of Africa in the Department of English
 C. the primacy of orature in the syllabus
 D. the focus on the study of the historic continuity of English literature Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
 2. B and C only 
3. C and D only 
4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- In collaboration with Henry Owuor-Anyumba and Kenyan writer Ngugi wa Thiong'o, he wrote On the Abolition of the English Department in 1972.
Based on this article, which inspired postcolonial students of English in Africa to question the practices of their discipline, Liyong, Owuor-Anyumba and wa Thiong'o were criticised for advocating cultural or even racial purity within academia. Rather, they sought to re-establish traditional East African ways of knowledge and understanding in literature, in an effort towards authenticity and as a means for the region to better understand itself in the context of national independence. By placing African culture at the centre of education, "all other things [would] be considered in their relevance to [the African] situation, and their contribution towards understanding [itself]". This philosophy was also politically significant at a time when East African governing bodies were struggling against the influence of post-colonial powers, such as the US and Great Britain. At the same time Liyong has described eastern Africa as a "literary wasteland".
In February 2020, Lo Liyong was suspended from his teaching assignment by the University of Juba, because he had written critical comments on South Sudan's government in a local South Sudanese newspaper. In a letter to Professor John A. Akec, Vice Chancellor of the University of Juba, 28 US-based academics, including a number of South Sudanese alumni of the University of Juba, expressed their opposition to the suspension.
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Liyong wrote highly imaginative short narratives, such as Fixions (1969), and unorthodox free verse,( ...) His nonfiction output consists of argumentative and amusing personal essays and bold literary criticism (...), presenting challenging new ideas in an original manner."

88.Arrange chronologically the following texts in terms of their years of first publication:
 A. Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene              
 B. Coleridge and Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads          
  C. Pablo Neruda’s Canto General                     
  D. Charles Baudelaire’s The Flowers of Evil                  
   Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
1. A, B, C, D 
 2. A, B, D, C 
 3. B, C, A, D 
 4. D, A, B, C 
 Correct Answer :‐ A, B, C, D 
Exp- The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser. Books I–III were first published in 1590, then republished in 1596 together with books IV–VI. The Faerie Queene is notable for its form: at over 36,000 lines and over 4,000 stanzas  it is one of the longest poems in the English language; it is also the work in which Spenser invented the verse form known as the Spenserian stanza. On a literal level, the poem follows several knights as a means to examine different virtues, and though the text is primarily an allegorical work, it can be read on several levels of allegory, including as praise (or, later, criticism) of Queen Elizabeth I. In Spenser's "Letter of the Authors", he states that the entire epic poem is "cloudily enwrapped in Allegorical devices", and that the aim of publishing The Faerie Queene was to "fashion a gentleman or noble person in virtuous and gentle discipline".
Spenser presented the first three books of The Faerie Queene to Elizabeth I in 1589, probably sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh. The poem was a clear effort to gain court favour, and as a reward Elizabeth granted Spenser a pension for life amounting to £50 a year, though there is no further evidence that Elizabeth I ever read any of the poem. This royal patronage elevated the poem to a level of success that made it Spenser's defining work.
Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature. The immediate effect on critics was modest, but it became and remains a landmark, changing the course of English literature and poetry.
Most of the poems in the 1798 edition were written by Wordsworth, with Coleridge contributing only four poems to the collection (although these made about a third of the book in length), including one of his most famous works, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
A second edition was published in 1800, in which Wordsworth included additional poems and a preface detailing the pair's avowed poetical principles. For another edition, published in 1802, Wordsworth added an appendix titled Poetic Diction in which he expanded the ideas set forth in the preface.A third edition was published in 1802, with substantial additions made to its "Preface," and a fourth edition was published in 1805.
Canto General is Pablo Neruda's tenth book of poems. It was first published in Mexico in 1950, by Talleres Gráficos de la Nación. Neruda began to compose it in 1938.
"Canto General" ("General Song") consists of 15 sections, 231 poems, and more than 15,000 lines. This work attempts to be a history or encyclopedia of the entire American Western Hemisphere, or New World, from a Hispanic American perspective.
Les Fleurs du mal (French pronunciation: [le flœʁ dy mal]; English: The Flowers of Evil) is a volume of French poetry by Charles Baudelaire.
Les Fleurs du mal includes nearly all of Baudelaire's poetry, written in 1840 and ending with his death in August 1867. First published in 1857, it was important in the symbolist and modernist movements. It was considered extremely controversial upon publication, and six of the poems were censored due to their immorality; however, it is now considered to be a major work of French poetry. The poems in Les Fleurs du mal frequently break with tradition, using suggestive images and unusual forms. The poems deal with themes relating to decadence and eroticism, particularly focusing on suffering and its relationship to the original sin, disgust toward evil and oneself, obsession with death, and aspiration toward an ideal world. Les Fleurs du mal was highly influential toward several notable French poets, including Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, and Stéphane Mallarmé.

89. Which of these characters figure in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot? 
A. Estragon 
B. Pozzo
 C. Bassanio 
D. Murphy
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A and B only 
2. B and C only 
 3. C and D only 
4. A and D only 
 Correct Answer :‐ A and B only 
Exp- There are six characters in “Waiting for Godot”. One of them is just a messenger, who is not as important as other characters. Remaining every character of the play is very necessary to understand purpose of playwright behind “Waiting for Godot”, which are:
Boy (Messenger)
90.Who is the author of The Otherness of English: India’s Aunty Tongue Syndrome? 
1. Probal Dasgupta 
 2. Yamuna Kachru 
3. Binoo  K. John 
 4. S.K.Verma 
 Correct Answer :‐ Probal Dasgupta 
Exp- The Otherness of English: India's Auntie Tongue Syndrome
 Is a famous book by Probal Dasgupta published in 1993 . 
The Otherness of English offers a unique interpretation of the content and useage of the English language in India, specifically commenting on the mode of its presence. The author presents an interdisciplinary account of the role English plays in the general process of modernization. Starting with the sociolinguistic notion of diglossia and the geo-linguistic notion of a southern and eastern Asian linguistic area, the author clearly demonstrates how English occupies a functional slot in India's linguistic development. This impressive volume will be of special interest to scholars in the fields of sociolinguistics, education, sociology, political science, and English literature. "... a brilliant intellectual tour de force. It analyses the role, functioning, and nature of English in India, and is a provocative challenge to any scholar concerned with English in 'development', diglossia, 'World Englishes', and processes of indigenization, or at a more theoretical level with the role of language in traditional, modernizing, and post-modern societies.... Dasgupta's argument draws on a daunting range of theoretical approaches, and his language rivals Isaiah Berlin's in complexity and lexical richness. The book is coherent, well-signposted, and lucid." --Applied Linguistics "An eminently readable, engaging and engaged book that wittily reformulates current nationalistic cliches of a Leftist rather than a Hindutva bent....The sensitivity to style and language in the presentation of the argument, is so rich in digression and detail and an entirely pleasant, superior irony." --Contributions to Indian Sociology "Professor P. Dasgupta's The Otherness of English emphatically dispels doubts and dogmas that bedevil English language and literature studies in India, and effectively interprets the real function and role of English in the post-independent, post-modern, and pan-Indian context . . . The book will be of immense relevance for researchers in socio-linguistics, language development and planning." -The Journal of Indian Writing in English "Dasgupta's inter-disciplinary analysis of English in the context shaped by recent work in diverse domains is interesting and though-provoking." -South Asian Language Review "A bold book. . . . He explores a number of fascinating themes, on each of which he has something illuminating to say." --The Statesman "Dasgupta's book is a brilliant intellectural tour de force. It analyses the role, functioning, and nature of English in India, and is a provocative challenge to any scholar concerned with English in 'development', diglossia, 'World Englishes', and processes of indigenization, or at a more theoretical level with the role of language in traditional, modernizing, and post-modern societies. Dasgupta's argument draws on a daunting range of theoretical approaches, and his language rivals Isaiah Berlin's in complexity and lexical richness. The book is cerebally demanding, but coherent, well-signposted, and lucid. The final summare is eminently accessible, and might with profit be read initially." --Robert Phillipson in Applied Linguistics

91. Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                              List II
 (Library/Institute)                                                        (Location) 
A. Connemara Public Library                                     I. Kolkata 
B. Dhvanyaloka                                                           II. Chennai 
C. Bhandarkar Oriental Institute                             III. Mysore
 D. Asiatic Society                                                        IV. Pune
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐I , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐II 
 2. A ‐III , B ‐IV , C ‐II , D ‐I 
3. A ‐IV , B ‐I , C ‐II , D ‐III 
 4. A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐I 
Correct Answer :‐ A ‐I , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐II 
Exp- The Connemara Public Library at Egmore in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, is one of the four National Depository Libraries which receive a copy of all books, newspapers and periodicals published in India. Established in 1896, the library is a repository of century-old publications, wherein lie some of the most respected works and collections in the history of the country. It also serves as a depository library for the United Nations. It is located in the Government Museum Complex on Pantheon Road, Egmore, which also houses the Government Museum and the National Art Gallery.
Dhvanyaloka Centre For Indian Studies is a platform established as a subsidiary of Dhvanyaloka Academy Foundation Private Limited (a company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956) which is founded by a select group of persons for promoting and facilitating diffusion of knowledge, study, research and development of Indian studies in the fields of Culture, Arts, Dance, Music and the like.
The Centre is named after Dhvanyaloka, the title of a critical work of the 9th century A.D. by Anandavardhana representing the highest peak of Indian genius in critical response to works of art. “Dhvani” literally means sound, but, rightly, for Ananda K.Coomaraswamy, it is sounding which means one continues to hear the reverberations of what one has read, seen or heard in the deep heart’s silence. Anandavardhana’s work sheds light on all this in Art Experience. The Centre is dedicated to the renewal of this rich potential in our approach to work of art. Svalpam Apyasya Dharmasya…..!
The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) is located in Pune, Maharashtra, India. It was founded on 6 July 1917 and named after Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar (1837–1925), long regarded as the founder of Indology (Orientalism) in India. The institute is well known for its collection of old Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts.
The Asiatic Society is a government of India organisation founded during the Company rule in India to enhance and further the cause of "Oriental research", in this case, research into India and the surrounding regions. It was founded by the philologist William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Justice Robert Chambers in Calcutta, the then-capital of the Presidency of Fort William.
At the time of its foundation, this Society was named as "Asiatick Society". In 1825, the society was renamed as "The Asiatic Society". In 1832 the name was changed to "The Asiatic Society of Bengal" and again in 1936 it was renamed as "The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal". Finally, on 1 July 1951, the name of the society was changed to its present one. The Society is housed in a building at Park Street in Kolkata (Calcutta). The Society moved into this building during 1808. In 1823, the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta was formed and all the meetings of this society were held in the Asiatic Society.

92.Arrange the following groups of poets in their chronological sequence in relation to English literary history:
 A. The Imagist poets 
B. The Cavalier poets
 C. The Movement poets
 D. The Lake poets
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
 1. B, D, C, A 
 2. D, A, B, C 
 3. D, B, A, C 
4. B, D, A, C 
 Correct Answer :‐ B, D, C, A 
Exp-Already discussed in the book elsewhere.
93. Match List I with List II
 List I                                                                                    List II
 (Text)                                                                                  (Author) 
A. Advancement of Learning                                            I. Susan Sontag
 B. Past and Present                                                          II. Francis Bacon 
C. English Traits                                                                   III. Thomas Carlyle
 D. Illness as Metaphor                                                       IV. R. W. Emerson
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: 
1. A ‐I , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐II 
 2. A ‐III , B ‐IV , C ‐II , D ‐I 
 3. A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐I 
 4. A ‐IV , B ‐I , C ‐II , D ‐III 
Correct Answer :‐ A ‐I , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐II 
Exp-1. The Advancement of Learning (full title: Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human) is a 1605 book by Francis Bacon. It inspired the taxonomic structure of the highly influential Encyclopédie by Jean le Rond d'Alembert and Denis Diderot, and is credited by Bacon's biographer-essayist Catherine Drinker Bowen with being a pioneering essay in support of empirical philosophy.
2.Past and Present (book), an 1843 book by Thomas Carlyle
    3.  English Traits is a book published in 1856 by Ralph Waldo Emerson
4.Illness as Metaphor is a 1978 work of critical theory by Susan Sontag, in which she challenged the victim-blaming in the language that is often used to describe diseases and the people affected by them.

94.Arrange the following terms in their chronological sequence of appearance:
 A. dissociation of sensibility
 B. unreliable narrator
 C. theatre of cruelty 
D. egotistical sublime
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below [Question ID = 11012][Question Description = S4_qSNz_PG_ENG_Q94]
 1. D, A, B, C [Option ID = 14045]
 2. D, A, C, B [Option ID = 14046] 
3. D, B, A, C [Option ID = 14047] 
4. B, D, A, C [Option ID = 14048] 
Correct Answer :‐ D, A, B, C [Option ID = 14045] 
95.Match List I with List II
 List I List II
 (Text) (Author)
 A. The Lie of the Land I. Alok Mukherjee
 B. Masks of Conquest II. Rajeswari Sunder Rajan
 C. Rethinking English III. Gauri Viswanathan 
D. This Gift of English IV. Svati Joshi
 Choose the correct answer from the options given below: [Question ID = 11013][Question Description = S4_qSNz_PG_ENG_Q95]
 1. A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐I [Option ID = 14049] 
2. A ‐III , B ‐IV , C ‐II , D ‐I [Option ID = 14050] 
3. A ‐I , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐II [Option ID = 14051]
 4. A ‐IV , B ‐I , C ‐II , D ‐III [Option ID = 14052]
 Correct Answer :‐ A ‐II , B ‐III , C ‐IV , D ‐I [Option ID = 14049] 96.Which of the following abbreviations refers to a documentation style? 
 1. PMLA 
 2. MHRA 
 3. ARIEL 
 4. MFS 
 Correct Answer :‐ PMLA 
 97.  MLA Style Sheet, a compilation of scholarly conventions and directives, was first published in: 
1. 1970. 
2. 1962. 
 3. 1951. 
 4. 1957.
 Correct Answer :‐ 1951
Exp- In 1951, the Modern Language Association published the first MLA Style Sheet. It was thirty-one pages long and included sample footnotes.
98.Who among the following has coined the term, ‘ecofeminism’? 
1. Helene Cixous 
 2. Francoise d’Eaubonne 
3. Marguerite Duras 
 4. Monique Wittig 
 Correct Answer :‐ Francoise d’Eaubonne
Exp- Ecofeminism is a branch of feminism that sees environmentalism, and the relationship between women and the earth, as foundational to its analysis and practice. Ecofeminist thinkers draw on the concept of gender to analyse the relationships between humans and the natural world.The term was coined by the French writer Françoise d'Eaubonne in her book Le Féminisme ou la Mort (1974). Ecofeminist theory asserts a feminist perspective of Green politics that calls for an egalitarian, collaborative society in which there is no one dominant group. Today, there are several branches of ecofeminism, with varying approaches and analyses, including liberal ecofeminism, spiritual/cultural ecofeminism, and social/socialist ecofeminism (or materialist ecofeminism). Interpretations of ecofeminism and how it might be applied to social thought include ecofeminist art, social justice and political philosophy, religion, contemporary feminism, and poetry.
Ecofeminist analysis explores the connections between women and nature in culture, economy, religion, politics, literature and iconography, and addresses the parallels between the oppression of nature and the oppression of women. These parallels include but are not limited to seeing women and nature as property, seeing men as the curators of culture and women as the curators of nature, and how men dominate women and humans dominate nature. Ecofeminism emphasizes that both women and nature must be respected.
Though the scope of ecofeminist analysis is dynamic, American author and ecofeminist Charlene Spretnak has offered one way of categorizing ecofeminist work: 1) through the study of political theory as well as history; 2) through the belief and study of nature-based religions; 3) through environmentalism.
99.Who is the author of Radiant Textuality? 
1. Richard D. Altick 
2. James Thorpe 
 3. Gerald Graff 
 4. Jerome McGann 
 Correct Answer :‐ Jerome McGann
Exp- Radiant Textuality: Literary Studies after the World Wide Web
 Is a  famous book by J. McGann
This book describes and explains the fundamental changes that are now taking place in the most traditional areas of humanities theory and method, scholarship and education. The changes flow from the re-examination of the very foundations of the humanities - its theories of textuality and communication - that are being forced by developments in information technology. A threshold was crossed during the last decade of the twentieth century with the emergence of the World Wide Web, which has (1) globalized access to computerized resources and information, and (2) made interface and computer graphics paramount concerns for work in digital culture. While these changes are well known, their consequences are not well understood, despite so much discussion by digital enthusiasts and digital doomsters alike. In reconsidering these matters, Radiant Textuality introduces some remarkable new proposals for integrating computerized tools into the central interpretative and critical activities of traditional humanities disciplines, and of literary studies in particular.

100. Arrange the following in their chronological order: 
A. English replaces Persian as official language of the Company
 B. Arrival of Charles Grant in India
 C. Universities established in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras
 D. Construction of Fort William in Calcutta 
Choose the correct answer from the options given below 
 1. D, B, C, A 
2. D, A, C, B 
3. B, A, D, C 
 4. D, B, A, C 
Correct Answer :‐ D, B, C, A 
Exp- Based on the East India Company trading policy shift, from voyage to factory and to establishment of fortresses, the construction of the old fort commenced at Sutanuti (Calcutta) in 1698 and was completed in 1706. It was named Fort William in honour of the King of England.
In 1792, Grant wrote the tract "Observations on the State of Society among the Asiatic Subjects of Great Britain." In it, he contended that India could be advanced socially and morally by compelling the Company to permit Christian missionaries into India, a view diametrically opposed to the long-held position of the East India Company that Christian missionary work in India conflicted with its commercial interests and should be prohibited. In 1797, Grant presented his essay to the Company’s directors, and then later in 1813, along with the reformer William Wilberforce, successfully to the House of Commons. The Commons ordered its re-printing during the important debates on the renewal of the company's charter.
The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras were established as the outcome of Sir Charles Wood's dispatch. The first three universities in India Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay were established in 1857.
The role of Persian language in India was very important and it was used as the second official language of India, the Persian language considered as the language of culture and science of subcontinent, before the British colonized India. The Persian language was replaced by English Language in India in 1832.

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